Know About Physical Access Control

An overview of physical access control

M-33 is a northsouth state trunkline highway in the US state of Michigan that runs from Interstate 75 (I-75) at Alger in Arenac County north to M-27 near Cheboygan. In between, the trunkline runs through rural sections of the northeastern Lower Peninsula including state and national forest areas. M-33 connects to a handful of parks and crosses several of the rivers in that section of the state. It runs concurrently with three other state highways, sharing pavement to connect through several small communities of Northern Michigan.

M-33 was designated by 1919 along a section of the current highway between Mio and Atlanta. The highway also included roadway segments south of Mio that are now parts of other trunklines. The portion south of Mio was rerouted in the mid-1920s, transferring sections to M-72 in the process. The state started extending M-33 in both directions in 1930s. The current highway segment between Onaway and Cheboygan was the former route of US Highway 23 (US23) until 1940 when the latter highway was realigned onto an alignment that runs along Lake Huron. Several minor changes have been made to M-33's routing since the 1950s to straighten out curves or finish paving the highway.

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History of physical access control

M-33 was first designated by July 1, 1919. It ran along the current routing from Mio north to M-32 east of Atlanta. The highway also ran south of Mio to M-76 east of Roscommon using segments of what are now M-72 and M-144. By 1927, the southern section from Fairview to Roscommon was redesignated as a part of M-72. M-33 was shifted to run south of Mio to Rose City instead, creating the M-33/M-72 concurrency in the process. An extension was added by the end of the decade southward to M-55 at Campbell, a former community east of Selkirk in Ogemaw County. An earthen highway extension of M-33 north of Atlanta to US23 at Onaway was opened in 1934. A few years later in 1938, M-55 was realigned to follow a more direct path east of West Branch. At the same time, M-33 was extended south by a few miles to the new roadway south of Campbell and Selkirk. A lengthy northern extension was added to M-33 in 1940 when US23 was moved to a route along the Lake Huron shoreline between Rogers City and Cheboygan. The former route of US23 between the Afton area and Rogers City was redesignated as a discontinuous section of M-68, and M-33 was extended westward from Onaway along that highway to Afton and north to US27 (now M-27) near Cheboygan, creating the M-33/M-68 concurrency in southern Cheboygan and Presque Isle counties. By 1945, M-33 was extended southward again, this time to terminate at M-76 in Alger.

The Michigan State Highway Department rerouted M-33/M-72 near Fairview in late 1951 or early 1952, turning the former route back to local control. The last section of M-33 was paved in southern Cheboygan County in the late 1950s. In 1968, the southern end was extended slightly to end at the new M-76 freeway that opened between Alger and Standish; that freeway was redesignated as part of I-75 in 1973. A minor realignment of M-32/M-33 east of Atlanta smoothed out some curves in the road in 1996.

Route description of physical access control

M-33 starts at exit202 on I-75 near Alger. From there it crosses a branch of the Lake State Railway and Old 76 Road before turning north. The highway runs north parallel to the Rifle River across the ArenacOgemaw County line. It meets the eastern terminus of F-18 and continues through woodland to an intersection with M-55 east of West Branch. North of the junction, the environment transitions to farm land that borders the edge of the Au Sable State Forest to the Rose City area. North of Rose City, M-33 crosses into the Huron National Forest as the highway continues due north into Oscoda County, passing Mack Lake campground.

M-33 follows Morenci Avenue into the center of Mio where the highway joins M-72 south of Mio Pond, and they run concurrently together across the Mio Pond section of the Au Sable River out of town. On the north side of the river, F-32 merges in from the east and the three roadway designations run concurrently north. The highway continues to a sweeping 90 turn east near Smith Lake. F-32 separates to turn west and M-33/M-72 turns eastward. The trunkline continues to Fairview where M-33 turns north, leaving the M-72 concurrency to continue northward. M-33 crosses into the Mackinaw State Forest and passes through Comins. North of that unincorporated community, the highway curves northeast, east and back north to cross into Montmorency County. Before reaching M-32, M-33 crosses the Thunder Bay River. After the river, M-33 turns westward along M-32 to the community of Atlanta. The highway passes near the Atlanta Municipal Airport as it enters the community. In the middle of town, M-33 turns back north. The highway provides access to the Clear Lake State Park in northern Montmorency County before crossing into Presque Isle County.

M-33 parallels the Cheboygan Presque Isle county line as it runs northward along the Black River to Onaway. Once in town, M-33 turns west with M-68 toward Cheboygan County. The highway passes through Tower, and a junction with F-05, before it continues west to the Afton area. There M-33 turns north one last time, running along the east shore of Mullett Lake past Aloha and M-212; M-212 is the shortest highway in Michigan that provides access to Aloha State Park. North of Aloha, M-33 crosses the Cheboygan River and meets M-27, the location of its northern terminus south of Cheboygan.

The Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) maintains M-33 like all other state trunkline highways in the state. As a part of these maintenance responsibilities, the department tracks traffic volumes using a metric called average annual daily traffic (AADT). This figure is a calculation of the traffic along a roadway segment for any average day of the year. In MDOT's surveys in 2009, they found that the peak AADT along M-33 was the 6,928vehicles a day along a section of the M-72 concurrency. The lowest traffic counts were measured immediately south of the Onaway city limits at 956vehicles daily. The only section of M-33 that has been listed on the National Highway System (NHS) is the segment concurrent with M-32 in Montmorency County. The NHS is a network of roads important to the country's defense, economy and mobility.

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Knowledge About Physical Access Control
Knowledge About Physical Access Control
1. "Great advocate for Open Access" of physical access controlIn a post made in 2003, Stevan Harnad, another Open Access advocate, called Arunachalam "India's and the Developing World's great advocate for open access". Arunachalam had then been named as Co-Director of the CogPrints Archive.Arunachalam has said that his "interest in promoting Open Access specifically started around 1996, when I began working as a visiting faculty at the Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai".He has argued that research performed in India, and funded by Indian taxpayers, is reported in a few thousand journals, both Indian and foreign. But since some of these journals are very expensive, "many Indian libraries -- including sometimes the author's own institutional library -- are not able to subscribe to them. As consequence, other Indian scientists working in the same, or related, areas are unable to read these papers. This is a problem common to all developing countries."Arunachalam's view is that "if all these papers were published in OA journals, or if the authors made them freely available on the Web by self-archiving them either in institutional OA archives or in central archives like arXiv and CiteSeer then the problem would vanish." He is known to favour the self-archiving route for Indian researchers. This is because, he says, "it would allow us to achieve 100% OA (open access) more quickly."Indian research are believed to published in equal proportions in both Indian and foreign journals, but most Indian ones have a very poor circulation. Resultantly, Indian research work does not reach a wide audience "affecting both its visibility and its impact". Hence, Arunachalam has argued that Open Access archives are "very important" for the Indian researcher, whom it could offer greater visibility.------2. Introduction of physical access controlIAPS is an association of physics students and student societies from around the globe, working to promote peaceful collaboration amongst its members. These are represented by national and local committees, who meet regularly to ensure the relevance of activities.Since 1987, IAPS has worked continuously to support friendly relations and collaboration between physics students. The group supports its members in their academic and professional work by discussing and acting on scientific, social and cultural issues. IAPS is a recognised non-governmental organisation run entirely by students from around the world.IAPS runs an annual International Conference of Physics Students (ICPS), one of the biggest student organized conferences in the world. IAPS also organizes visits to global research institutions such as CERN or Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, international physics competitions, summer schools, exchange programmes and multinational meetings.On a daily basis, IAPS is run by an Executive Committee, which is elected at the Annual General Meeting (AGM), held during the ICPS with the participation of all member societies. Most of the activities are run through the help of student volunteers, whose collaboration is necessary to ensure that all activities are offered at prices that allow participation from countries with weaker economies.Throughout its existence, IAPS has been accumulating a number of partnerships with several international organizations. Between the most long-standing collaborators stand the European Physical Society (EPS) and the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). IAPS continuously pursues collaborative partnership efforts with other organizations to have a positive impact in the global scientific community.------3. Generic cell rate algorithm of physical access controlThe generic cell rate algorithm (GCRA) is a leaky bucket-type scheduling algorithm for the network scheduler that is used in Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks. It is used to measure the timing of cells on virtual channels (VCs) and or Virtual Paths (VPs) against bandwidth and jitter limits contained in a traffic contract for the VC or VP to which the cells belong. Cells that do not conform to the limits given by the traffic contract may then be re-timed (delayed) in traffic shaping, or may be dropped (discarded) or reduced in priority (demoted) in traffic policing. Nonconforming cells that are reduced in priority may then be dropped, in preference to higher priority cells, by downstream components in the network that are experiencing congestion. Alternatively they may reach their destination (VC or VP termination) if there is enough capacity for them, despite them being excess cells as far as the contract is concerned: see priority control.The GCRA is given as the reference for checking the traffic on connections in the network, i.e. usage/network parameter control (UPC/NPC) at usernetwork interfaces (UNI) or inter-network interfaces or network-network interfaces (INI/NNI). It is also given as the reference for the timing of cells transmitted (ATM PDU Data_Requests) onto an ATM network by a network interface card (NIC) in a host, i.e. on the user side of the UNI. This ensures that cells are not then discarded by UPC/NCP in the network, i.e. on the network side of the UNI. However, as the GCRA is only given as a reference, the network providers and users may use any other algorithm that gives the same result.------4. Federal elections of physical access controlWith a final total of 247 seats (56.78%) in the House and 54 seats in the Senate, the Republicans ultimately achieved their largest majority in the U.S. Congress since the 71st Congress in 1929.Congressional electionsSenate electionsAll 33 seats in Senate Class II were up for election. Additionally, three special elections were held to fill vacancies in Class III.Of the 36 Senate races, the Republican Party won 24 (a net gain of nine seats, which represents the largest gain for a party in the Senate since 1980, and the largest Senate gain in a midterm since 1958) and the Democratic Party won 12, thus resulting in the Republicans regaining control of the Senate for the first time since 2006, with a total of 54 seats. The race in Louisiana headed to a run-off on December 6, 2014, in which Rep. Bill Cassidy (R) defeated 3-term incumbent Sen. Mary Landrieu 55.9% to 44.1%.House of Representatives electionsAll 435 voting seats in the United States House of Representatives were up for election. Elections were held to select the delegates for the District of Columbia and four of the five U.S. territories. The only seat in the House not up for election was the Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico, who serves a four-year term. The Republican party won 247 seats (a net gain of 13 seats) and the Democratic Party, 188 seats. Thus, the Republicans gained their largest majority in the House since 1928. Nationwide, Republicans won the popular vote for the House of Representatives by a margin of 5.7 percent.On March 11, there was a special election for Florida's 13th congressional district, won by the Republican Party.------5. Current superintendent of physical access controlTonya Hoover, National Fire Academy SuperintendentTonya Hoover is the Superintendent of the U.S. Fire Administrations National Fire Academy (NFA). She was named to this position in May 2017. As Superintendent, Ms. Hoover provides leadership for the NFA, which focuses on enhancing the ability of fire and emergency services and allied professionals to deal more effectively with fire and related emergencies.Ms. Hoover is an accomplished executive with more than 20 years of management experience in both local and state government. She has successfully worked at high levels of government in developing and implementing fire protection, fire prevention, fire training, and community risk reduction programs.From July 2009 to July 2016, Ms. Hoover served as the California State Fire Marshal, where she was responsible for statewide fire prevention, fire service training, pipeline safety, code and regulations development, and analysis and implementation. She was the California Assistant State Fire Marshal from September 2007 to June 2009. Previously, Ms. Hoover served as a fire marshal/battalion chief for a local fire department and was a deputy campus fire marshal for the University of California at Berkeley. Ms. Hoover was on the Board of Directors for the National Fire Protection Association and the International Fire Service Training Association, and is an active committee member with the International Code Council.Ms. Hoover received her MBA in Business and Human Resources from the University of Phoenix in 2006 and a Bachelor of Science in Technical Education, specializing in Fire Protection and Safety, from Oklahoma State University in 1985. She holds an associate degree in Fire Protection Engineering Technology (also from Oklahoma State University) and possesses a California lifetime teaching credential for fire science.------6. Turnout of physical access controlNationwide voter turnout was 36.4%, down from 40.9% in the 2010 midterms and the lowest since the 1942 elections, when just 33.9% of voters turned out, though that election came during the middle of World War II.The states with the highest turnout were Maine (59.3%), Wisconsin (56.9%), Alaska (55.3%), Colorado (53%), Oregon (52.7%) Minnesota (51.3%), Iowa (50.6%), New Hampshire (48.8%), Montana (46.1%) and South Dakota (44.6%), all of which except for Iowa and Montana featured a competitive gubernatorial race and all of which except for Maine and Wisconsin also featured competitive Senate races. The states with the highest turnout that had no Senate or gubernatorial race that year were North Dakota (44.1%) and Washington state (38.6%).The states with the lowest turnout were Indiana (28%), Texas (28.5%), Utah (28.8%), Tennessee (29.1%), New York (29.5%), Mississippi (29.7%), Oklahoma (29.8%), New Jersey (30.4%) and West Virginia and Nevada (31.8%). Indiana and Utah had no Senate or gubernatorial elections and the others all had races for at least one of the posts, but they were not considered competitive. Turnout in Washington, D.C. was (30.3%).According to CNN Young Americans aged between 18-29 accounted for 13%, down from 19% in the presidential election two years before.Analysis by the Pew Research Center found that 35% of non-voters cited work or school commitments, which prevented them from voting, 34% said they were too busy, unwell, away from home or forgot to vote, 20% either didn't like the choices, didn't know enough or didn't care and 10% had recently moved, missed a registration deadline or didn't have transportation.The New York Times counts apathy, anger and frustration at the relentlessly negative tone of the campaigns as the reasons of low turnout and stated, "Neither party gave voters an affirmative reason to show up at the polls."------7. Communist Organisation in the British Isles of physical access controlThe Communist Organisation in the British Isles (COBI) was a Marxist-Leninist political party in Britain and Ireland. It was founded in 1974 by members of the British and Irish Communist Organisation (BICO) who disagreed with BICO's stance on workers' control, which the COBI described as reducing "the working class to a plastic object of bourgeois history" and"fundamentally anti-Marxist". The COBI, however, retained several of BICO's policies, including supporting the partition of Ireland, backing the UK joining the European Economic Community, and opposition to Trotskyism.The new group had already begun studying the work of the De Leonist Socialist Labour Party, also taking its arm-and-hammer logo as its own. It rapidly published a series of publications all bearing the name of their journal Proletarian, of which at least four issues were published, variously described as texts, broadsides or simply as pamphlets. COBI stated that it would use the work of "Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin and Mao as bases" and also defended the idea of the vanguard party as the means for achieving socialism.It was known for its strict entry conditions, which included knowledge of at least one language other than English, and a commitment from members to "maintain himself/herself in a state of mental and physical fitness and preparedness". Members were also required to develop theoretical work to a standard satisfactory to the organisation as described in the group's Platform, published in September 1976.In 1977, the party was officially renamed Communist Formation. Always small it disbanded a few years later, some of its last remnants joining the Socialist Unity coalition.Notable members included the Scottish computer scientist Paul Cockshott and the Welsh historian Gwyn A. Williams.
Understand Physical Access Control
Understand Physical Access Control
An overview of physical access controlAn Apostolic administration in the Catholic Church is administrated by a prelate appointed by the Pope to serve as the ordinary for a specific area. Either the area is not yet a diocese (a stable 'pre-diocesan', usually missionary apostolic administration), or is a diocese, eparchy or similar permanent ordinariate (such as a territorial prelature or a territorial abbacy) that either has no bishop (an apostolic administrator sede vacante, as after an episcopal death or resignation) or, in very rare cases, has an incapacitated bishop (apostolic administrator sede plena)Former Apostolic administrations of physical access controlLatin in EuropeApostolic Administration of esk Tn (Czech Republic)Apostolic Administration of Eastern Siberia (Russia)Apostolic Administration of EupenMalmedySankt Vith (Belgium; promoted Diocese of EupenMalmedy, later suppressed into Lige diocese)Apostolic Administration of European RussiaApostolic Administration of Grlitz (Germany; promoted Diocese)Apostolic Administration of Haarlem (Netherlands; promoted Diocese, renamed HaarlemAmsterdam)Apostolic Administration of Lubaczw (promoted and renamed diocese of Zamo-Lubaczw, Poland)Apostolic Administration of Moldova (Moldavia; now diocese of Chisinau)Apostolic Administration of Northern European RussiaApostolic Administration of Novosibirsk (Russia)Apostolic Administration of Prizren, a former diocese (and later titular bishopric) in Kosovo (ex-Yugoslavian autonomous province in Serbia) (in 1969 absorbed by Skopje in the present North Macedonia), restored in 2000, elevated in 2018 as diocese, immediately subject to RomeApostolic administration of Schwerin (partitioned Germany, merged into Hamburg archbishopric)Apostolic Administration of Southern European RussiaApostolic Administration of Trnava (Slovakia; promoted Archdiocese, lost Metropolitan status when restored after merger into Bratislava)Apostolic Administration of Ttz (then Germany, see moved to Schneidemhl (now Pia), elevated to Territorial Prelature, dissolved, now in Poland)Apostolic Administration of Upper Silesia (Poland; now Archdiocese of Katowice)Apostolic Administration of Western Siberia (Russia)Apostolic Administration of West Vlaanderen (West Flanders province in Belgium; promoted diocese and renamed Brugge (Bruges) after its see)Apostolic Administration of Yugoslav Baka (Serbia; now Diocese of Subotica)Apostolic Administration of Yugoslav Banat (Serbia; now Diocese of Zrenjanin)Eastern Catholic in EuropeApostolic Administration of Lemkowszczyzna (Poland; Ukrainian Catholic, promoted Apostolic Exarchate, suppressed)Ruthenian Catholic Apostolic Administration of Bosnia-Hercegovina (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Byzantine Rite; suppressed)Ruthenian Catholic Apostolic Administration of Targul-Siret (Romania, Byzantine Rite; suppressed)Latin OverseasIn AsiaApostolic Administration of Almaty (Kazachstan; promoted Diocese)Apostolic Administration of Astana (Kazachstan; promoted Archdiocese)Apostolic Administration of Kazakhstan (promoted Diocese and renamed Karaganda after its see)Apostolic Administration of Latakia (Maronite, Syria; now an Eparchy: Eastern Catholic Diocese)Apostolic Administration of Okinawa and the Southern Islands, alias Ryukyus (Japan; now Diocese of Naha)In AmericaApostolic Administration of Copiap (Chile; now a diocese)Apostolic Administration of El Petn (Guatemala; promoted Apostolic Vicariate)Apostolic Administration of Izabal (Guatemala; now a diocese)Apostolic Administration of Rio Branco (Brazil; promoted Territorial Prelature, renamed and again promoted Diocese of Roraima)In AfricaApostolic Administration of the Comoros Archipelago (Comoros; now Apostolic Vicariate of the Comoros Archipelago)Apostolic Administration of Mbuji-Mayi (now Diocese of Mbujimayi, in Congo)Apostolic Administration of Zanzibar and Pemba (now Diocese of Zanzibar, in Tanzania)Characteristics of physical access controlApostolic administrators of stable administrations are equivalent in canon law with diocesan bishops, meaning they have essentially the same authority as a diocesan bishop. This type of apostolic administrator is usually the bishop of a titular see.Administrators sede vacante or sede plena only serve in their role until a newly chosen diocesan bishop takes possession of the diocese. They are restricted by canon law in what they can do to the diocese they temporarily administer. For example, such an administrator may not sell real estate owned by the diocese. This type of administrator is commonly an auxiliary bishop of the diocese, a priest serving as the vicar general of the diocese, or the ordinary of a neighboring diocese.Normally when a diocese falls vacant, either the previously appointed Coadjutor bishop takes possession of the see or (lacking such successor) a vicar capitular/diocesan administrator is chosen locally, but the Pope, having full governmental power, can preempt this choice and name an apostolic administrator instead. Sometimes a retiring, promoted or transferred (arch)bishop is designated to be apostolic administrator until his successor is designated and takes office, sometimes the Metropolitan or a fellow suffragan is appointed.
Things You May Want to Know About Physical Access Control
Things You May Want to Know About Physical Access Control
An overview of physical access controlMichelle Anne Akers (born February 1, 1966) is an American former soccer player who starred in the 1991 and 1999 Women's World Cup and 1996 Olympics victories by the United States. At the 1991 World Cup, she won the Golden Shoe as the top scorer, with 10 goals.Akers is regarded as one of the greatest female soccer players of all time. She was named FIFA Female Player of the Century in 2002, an award she shared with China's Sun Wen. In 2004, Akers and Mia Hamm were the only two women named to the FIFA 100, a list of the 125 greatest living soccer players selected by Pel and commissioned by FIFA for that organization's 100th anniversary.Akers is a member of the (U.S.) National Soccer Hall of Fame; she was inducted in 2004, along with Paul Caligiuri and Eric Wynalda.Playing career of physical access controlInternationalAkers was a member of the 1985 United States women's national soccer team (USWNT) for its first-ever game, at a tournament in Italy in August 1985. Due to an ankle injury, she did not play in the first game. However, in the U.S.'s second-ever international game, she scored the first goal in the history of the program, in a 22 tie against Denmark.Akers scored 15 goals in 24 games for the U.S. from 1985 to 1990, before scoring a team-record 39 goals in 26 games in the 1991 season. In 1990 and 1991 she was named the Female Athlete of the Year by the United States Soccer Federation (USSF). Akers was also the lead scorer in the inaugural FIFA Women's World Cup in China in 1991, scoring ten goals, including five in one game. This led the U.S. women's team to the first women's world championship, defeating Norway 21 in the final. Akers scored both U.S. goals in the final.After the 1991 World Cup, she shifted from striker to central midfielder, in part to minimize the beatings doled out by opposing defenders. Despite the precautions, Akers suffered a concussion and a knee injury early in the 1995 World Cup, and was hampered by the knee in the U.S.'s semifinal loss to Norway.In 1996, Akers was again a member of the U.S. women's national team at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, where it won the first ever gold medal in Olympic Women's Soccer. She played with a torn medial collateral ligament in the holding central midfielder role, anchoring the team's defense, dominating in the air, and playmaking out of the back to maintain possession and generate goal-scoring opportunities. After the tournament her knee required reconstructive surgery for the third time. She was also a member of the gold-medal-winning 1998 Goodwill Games team. On June 7, 1998, she was awarded the FIFA Order of Merit, FIFA's highest honor in the global game of soccer, for her contributions to the game of soccer on and off the field; she was the first woman ever to receive it. Akers again was a leader and member of the 1999 Women's World Cup team, where the team won their second World Cup championship. Despite playing with a dislocated shoulder, caused by a fan in the quarterfinals,she was awarded the Bronze Ball of the tournament by FIFA.Shortly before the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia, Akers retired from the game due to injuries incurred before and during the 1999 FIFA World Cup. She was the U.S. national team's second all-time leading scorer (behind Mia Hamm) with 105 goals, 37 assists and 247 points.International career statisticsEarly life of physical access controlBorn to Robert and Anne Akers in Santa Clara, California on February 1, 1966, Akers grew up in the Seattle, Washington suburb of Shoreline, where she attended and played soccer for Shorecrest High School. Early in her career, she wasn't sure whether she was willing to do the training necessary to excel. After losing a youth game, she was frustrated and walked off the field in tears. Her father asked her "Did you have fun". Her answer was "yes" which led to the realization that this was the real reason she played, and that helped turn her into the fierce competitor she became. She was named an All-American three times during her high school career. At 5 feet 10 inches (179cm) in height and 150 pounds (68kg), Akers had an imposing physical presence on the soccer field and was noted for her aggressive and physical style of play.University of Central FloridaAkers attended the University of Central Florida on a scholarship where she was selected as four-time NCAA All-American. She was Central Florida's Athlete of the Year in 198889, was the all-time leading scorer in UCF history, won the Hermann Trophy in 1988 as the nation's top college soccer player, and had her #10 jersey retired by the school.
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