Knowledge Related to Front Comtois

The Front Comtois is a French small political group, located in France, in the region Franche-Comt. Its ideologies include racism, islamophobia, antisemitism, historical revisionism, homophobia, opposition to the legalization of abortion and neo-nazism. It was created in 2008.

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Members degraded a mosque with blood and a pig's head and racist inscriptions. Now Front Comtois has between 30 and 100 members, and often demonstrate in Montbliard, Belfort and Besanon and many other small cities. The organisation was condemned and fined in 2011 for incitement to racial and religious hatred, at 6400 euros of penalty.

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Performance in elections of Front & Inside View Camera

Loksabha election, 2009The Congress high command had worked out an alliance with the Trinamool Congress for the 2009 Loksabha polls as a result of which the state leadership of the Congress had to accept the seat-sharing deal with the AITC on Mamata Banerjee's terms. The AITC offered 14 of the 42 seats in West Bengal for the Congress to contest, and that included several Left Front bastions for decades like Arambagh, Jhargram, Bankura and Bolpur. But the leaders eventually had to accept the "humiliating" offer for the sake of the alliance.

The Congress fought 'bravely' in the Loksabha election and retained all its fortresses such as Jangipur, Baharampur, Murshidabad, Malda North, Malda South and Raiganj, but it could not open its account in the rest of South Bengal where its contested only "unwinnable" seats which the Left Front retained. Before the election, the Congress had 6 MPs from West Bengal and it remained with six even after the election. On the other hand, the AITC, with only one MP, went up to 19, thanks to the alliance.

Overall as an alliance, the AITC-INC-SUCI combined crushed the then-ruling Left Front which won 15 seats as opposed to the alliance's 26. Municipal election, 2010Elections to 81 municipalities in West Bengal took place in the year 2010. Again the AITC offered very few seats to the Congress.

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But the municipal election being a localized one, the state leadership officially decided to go it alone in the election but left it to the local leadership of the party to decide whether to go for unofficial seat adjustments with the AITC at the local level. This election was seen as a "do or die" for the state Congress to prove its independent existence in the state and also the fact that it could win on its own. Jalpaiguri divisionThe Congress performed very well in the Cooch Behar municipality by winning eight seats but it could not open its account in Tufanganj, Mathabhanga and Dinhata municipalities.

It won 16 of the 25 seats Jalpaiguri municipality. Malda divisionThe Congress improved its performance and won the Englishbazaar municipality with support from the AITC but in Old Malda municipality it could win only in 6 seats while the Left Front won 12. It also won the Beldanga, Murshidabad and Kandi municipalities and missed Dhulian by just one seat.

But it could not manage victory at Jangipur and Jiaganj-Azimganj municipalities. Presidency divisionIt retained Santipur and Birnagar municipalities but lost Ranaghat. It also won a few seats in Nabadwip and Kalyani.

INC performed quite well and required support of AITC to form the municipal boards. In Kolkata, it secured as many as 10 seats. INC emerged as the single largest party in Jaynagar-Majilpur municipality and formed the board with external support.

But it failed to win any seat in Ashoknagar-Kalyangarh, Kamarhati, Khardaha and Bidhannagar, Baruipur, Bally, Gayeshpur, Taherpur, Baranagar, Titagarh, New Barrackpur, Kanchrapara, Garulia, Taki and Bongaon Burdwan divisionThe Congress formed the municipal board in Rishra by emerging as the single largest party and the AITC required the Congress's support to control Sreerampur, Champdani and Konnagar. Though the Congress won substantial seats in Bansebria, Bhadreswar, Baidyabati and Hooghly-Chinsura it was blanked out in Chandannagar, Uttarpara-Kotrung, Tarakeswar and Arambagh. The Congress won all 19 seats and won Katwa municipality and emerged as the single largest party in Dainhat.

The AITC required the support of 5 Congress councillors to form the board at Kalna. The Congress also won an impressive number of seats in Memari and opened its account in Jamuria, but it remained a negligible force in Raniganj. The Congress won an impressive 8 and 6 seats in Bolpur and Suri respectively and it secured 4 in Rampurhat.

Medinipur divisionINC won 2 seats in Tamluk municipality but could not win any seat in Kanthi. Also performed well in Ghatal, Kharagpur and Ramjibanpur where it formed the boards along with the AITC. But it could not make its presence be felt in Kharar, Khirpai and Chandrakona.

The Congress secured 8 seats in Purulia municipality and gained control of it along with the AITC but it could not snatch Jhalda from the Left. It also won a seat in Raghunathpur. The Congress won 5 seats in Bankura, but it drew a blank in Sonamukhi and lost control of Bishnupur.

Overall, the Congress won 330 (18.4%) of the 1791 wards that went to polls in the year 2010. This was indeed an impressive result for the party, as it had fought alone - without the AITC.

Assembly election, 2011This time also, an "illogical and humiliating" offer of 65 of the 294 assembly seats had to be accepted by the state Congress as the high command wanted the AITC-INC alliance to remain intact. The Congress performed well by winning 42 of the 65 seats with excellent results from Malda and Murshidabad districts and pockets of North and South Bengal. It joined the Mamata Banerjee-led government and had two Cabinet ministers and 5 Ministers of State representing the party before withdrawing support from the state government .

Municipal election, 2012Municipal elections to Dhupguri, Durgapur, Haldia, Panskura, Nalhati and Coopers' Camp were held in 2012. The Congress fought independently and field candidates in 105 of the 129 wards for which elections were held. The Congress could not win any seat in Dhupguri, Haldia and Panskura municipalities.

It won a seat in Durgapur Municipal Corporation. In Nalhati (from where Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee's son Abhijit is elected to the assembly), the party managed three of the 15 seats. But the party received a shot in the arm when it registered a victory in Coopers' Camp winning 11 of the 12 seats.

The AITC won one.


World War II of Front & Inside View Camera

World War II in Europe began on Friday 1 September 1939 when German forces invaded Poland. Brndle received the Iron Cross 2nd Class (Eisernes Kreuz 2.

Klasse) on 20 April 1940. He claimed his first aerial victory on 10 May 1940 during the Battle of France, shooting down an Arme de l'Air (French Air Force) Morane-Saulnier M.S.

406 south of Sedan. In total Brndle claimed two victories over France before he was wounded on 26 May 1940. During takeoff on a maintenance test flight he crashed into a Dornier Do 17 injuring himself in the head.

He spent the next few weeks in the military hospital at Heidelberg. After recovering from the hospital, Brndle claimed his second victory during the Battle of Britain over the Royal Air Force (RAF) on 11 August 1940. On 26 August 1940, he was tasked with the leadership of 5.

Staffel (5th Squadron) of JG 53. Following his fourth aerial victory, he was awarded the Iron Cross 1st Class (Eisernes Kreuz 1. Klasse) on 3 September 1940.

He was officially appointed Staffelkapitn (squadron leader) of 5. Staffel on 15 September 1940. On 11 November 1940, he claimed his 6th and 7th aerial victories and was awarded the Front Flying Clasp of the Luftwaffe for Fighter Pilots (Frontflugspange fr Jagdflieger) in Silver on 5 May 1941 and in Gold on 7 June 1941.

The bulk of the Geschwader's air elements were moved via Jever, in northern Germany, to Mannheim-Sandhofen on 8 June 1941. There the aircraft were given a maintenance overhaul prior to moving east. The II.

Gruppe was transferred to Neusiedel in East Prussia, present-day Malomoaiskoj in Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia, between 1214 June. On 22 June the Geschwader crossed into Soviet airspace in support of Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union which opened the Eastern Front. There, Brndle claimed further victories and by the end of October 1941 was credited with 28 aerial victories.

Brndle's unit was then relocated to the Western Front again in October 1941 where it was based at Leeuwarden in the Netherlands before it was moved to the Mediterranean theater in December 1941. Based at Comiso airfield, Brndle flew combat missions against the RAF during the Siege of Malta. There he was awarded the German Cross in Gold (Deutsches Kreuz in Gold) on 25 February 1942 and four days later, on 1 March, he was promoted to Hauptmann (captain).

Group commanderOn 1 May 1942, Brndle was appointed Gruppenkommandeur (group commander) of II. Gruppe of Jagdgeschwader 3 "Udet" (JG 33rd Fighter Wing), named after the World War I fighter ace Ernst Udet. Its former Gruppenkommandeur, Hauptmann Karl-Heinz Krahl, had been killed in action over Malta on 14 April 1942.

At the time, the Gruppe was stationed at Plze for rest and refit before it was relocated to the Eastern Front on 18 May 1942. Too late to participate in the Battle of the Kerch Peninsula, it was located on the left wing of Army Group South, assigned to an airfield at Chuguyev in the Kharkov area. Brndle scored the Gruppe's first victory after the relocation, claiming a Polikarpov R-5 reconnaissance bomber aircraft at 3:49 am on 20 May 1942.

By this date, Brndle had accumulated 36 victories. He was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) on 1 July 1942 for 49 aerial victories. On this day, he claimed his 53rd aerial victory, after he shot down an Ilyushin Il-2 "Sturmovik".

Brndle often claimed multiple victories per day, three victories on 8 July 1942 took his tally to 58 and further three claims made on 10 July took his score to 61. On 16 July 1942 he filed four claims, numbers 6467. He became an "ace-in-a-day" for the first time on 26 July 1942 when he shot down five enemy aircraft, aerial victories 7377, and again five on 7 August 1942, 89 in total.

In July and August 1942, he claimed 50 aerial victories in the southern sector of the Eastern Front, among them his 100th to 102nd victory on 23 August 1942. He was the 17th Luftwaffe pilot to achieve the century mark. For this achievement he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub) on 27 August 1942, the 114th officer or soldier of the Wehrmacht so honored.

The presentation was made by Adolf Hitler personally. Brndle was promoted to Major on 1 March 1943. On 29 April 1943, he claimed his 135th to 138th aerial victories.

On 5 July 1943, the first day of the Battle of Kursk (Unternehmen Zitadelle), he claimed five victories taking his total to 151. His II. Gruppe claimed 77 aircraft shot down on 12 July which included its 2,000 aerial victory of the war.

Defense of the Reich and deathIn early August 1943, Brndle's II. Gruppe was withdrawn from the Eastern Front for service in Defense of the Reich on the Western Front. The Gruppe spent one-month training in northern Germany before they arrived at the Schiphol airfield near Amsterdam in the Netherlands on 12 September.

On 3 November 1943, Brndle shot down two Republic P-47 Thunderbolts fighters escorting a formation of Boeing B-17 Flying Fortresses on a mission targeting Wilhelmshaven. Later that day, he was killed in action west of Amsterdam in the Netherlands. Following an attack by a group of Martin B-26 Marauders on Schiphol airfield, II.

Gruppe scrambled to counter the attack. It is assumed that he was shot down in his Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-6 (Werknummer 26058factory number) by Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) fighters under the command of Wing Commander Lloyd Chadburn. His body was later washed ashore near Zandvoort on 30 December 1943 and was buried at the Heroes Cemetery in Amsterdam (field 74, grave 405) one day later.

His remains were moved in January 1944 before they were reinterred for a last time on 2 December 1947, this time at the cemetery Ysselsteyn (block CW, row 1, grave 25).

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They are so named, because one of them has been appropriated by the modern Brahmans as a shrine of Tulja Devi, a form of Bhavani, the consort of Shiva (see Tulja Bhavani Temple). The caves run along the face of the cliff nearly from south-east to north-west, facing about south-west, but all the faades have fallen away. They consist of a number of cells and two small viharas, with a Chaitya cave of a form quite unique. It is circular in plan, 25 feet 6 inches across, with a dagoba in the centre, 8 feet 2 inches in diameter, surrounded by twelve plain octagonal shafts 11 feet in height, supporting a dome over the dagoba. The surrounding aisle is roofed by a half arch rising from the wall to the upper side of an architrave 7 or 8 inches deep over the pillars. The dagoba is perfectly plain, but its capital has been hewn off to convert it into a huge linga of Shiva, and even the dome is much hacked into, while some of the pillars have been notched and others broken. In front of this cave and the one on each side of it is a platform built by the modern devotes of Tulja Devi. Over the front of one of the cells to the north-east of this are left some Chaitya-window ornamentation, a larger one over where the door has been, the inner arch of which is filled with knotted ribbons etc., similar to what is over the Chaitya-cave door at the Nasik Caves, while the front of the arch is carved with flowers. On each side of this is a smaller arch; and farther to the left is a dagoba in half relief with the umbrella or chhatri over it, on each side a Gandharva or Kinnara above, and a male figure below, that to the right attended by a female, but all of them weatherworn. Over all is a projecting frieze carved on front with the "Buddhist rail pattern". Next to these are two more plain fronts, and then two with Chaitya-window heads over where the doors have been, and smaller ones between, and the "rail ornament" and quadrantal carved roll supported by slender brackets in entire relief, as at the Bhaja Caves. ------ Ulnar branch of Front & Inside View Camera The ulnar branch (ramus ulnaris; posterior branch) passes obliquely downward on the medial side of the basilic vein, in front of the medial epicondyle of the humerus, to the back of the forearm, and descends on its ulnar side as far as the wrist, distributing filaments to the skin. It communicates with the medial brachial cutaneous, the dorsal antebrachial cutaneous branch of the radial, and the dorsal branch of the ulnar. ------ Alliances and parties of Front & Inside View Camera UDF is a Kerala legislative alliance aligned with the UPA at the national level and the LDF comprises primarily of CPI(M) and the CPI, forming the Left Front in the national level. National Democratic Alliance (NDA), led by Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) contested in 19 seats. United Democratic FrontLeft Democratic FrontNational Democratic Alliance ------ Gallery of Front & Inside View Camera Equestrian statue of King Chulalongkorn and Royal Plaza in front of Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall Uthong Nai Road beside Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall Wisukam Narueman Bridge, crossing Khlong Phadung Krung Kasem linking Phara Nakhon and Dusit Districts Chamai Maruchet Bridge, crossing Khlong Prem Prachakon in front of Government House Wat Benchamabophit or Marble Temple Sanam Sua Pa, beside Royal Plaza, Bureau of the Royal Household office National Library of Thailand, Sam Sen Road Veterinary hospital on Rama V Road opposite Chitralada Royal Villa Ministry of Education Vajira Hospital, public hospital Sappaya-Sapasathan the new national legislative building ------ Political activity of Front & Inside View Camera Rondn served in the Colorado Party beginning in adolescence. During the 1960s she was the secretary of the deputies Luis Bernardo Pozzolo es and Julio Mara Sanguinetti (who was later twice president of the Republic). During the civic-military dictatorship, she was kidnapped and detained in a military unit. She was elected as an alternate official on several occasions, first in 1984, for the department of Montevideo. In the 1999 elections in which Jorge Batlle captured the Presidency of the Republic, Rondn was elected deputy for Lista 15 es, holding the position of vice president of the Chamber of Deputies for the term 20002005, and coming to occupy the ownership of the presidency of the Chamber. She has always stood out as a fighter for women's rights; along with fellow deputies Beatriz Argimn, Luca Topolansky, and Margarita Percovich, she constituted the so-called "Women's Bank", composed of women from all parties. She was part of the Equity and Gender Commission, which she chaired in 2001. In the 2005 municipal elections she headed the list of candidates of Lista 15 to the departmental board of Montevideo, being comfortably elected. That year she was elected to the national executive committee of the Colorado Party (CEN). In 2009 she supported the presidential candidacy of Jos Amorn Batlle in the sector Batllismo Siglo XXI with the group "Contra viento & marea", obtaining a place in the National Convention of the Party. For the second round, Rondn said that, against her party's recommendion, she would not vote for candidate Luis Alberto Lacalle of the National Party, but she would for the Broad Front candidate, Jos Mujica. She did not support any candidate in the municipal elections of May 2010. On 20 June 2010, Rondn announced her move to the Broad Front, along with a Batllist column led by her. Rondn worked as an advisor on gender and equity issues, and is currently director of the centers of the country's Ministry of Education and Culture.
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On 9 September, White troops launched an offensive by large infantry and cavalry forces with the support of 12 batteries, armored cars and tanks against the 10th Army, and in the course of fierce fighting in several sectors forced parts of the 10th Army to retreat. By 11 September, active fighting around Tsaritsyn stopped. The command of the Southern Front decided to withdraw the Cavalry corps of Budenny from the 10th Army, in order to send him to Novokhopersk against Mamontov's Cavalry corps. At the same time, the commander of a newly formed cavalry corps, Filipp Mironov, decided independently to march to the front against the troops of Denikin. This step was seen as rebellion, and the forces of the Cavalry corps of the Budyonny were sent to suppress it. On 13 August, Mironov was arrested, and his 500 men were disarmed. The offensive of the Ninth Army developed slowly because of the stubborn resistance of the Don Army. Only by 21 August, the 9th Army troops achieved a breakthrough and began to encroach upon parts of rivers Khopyor and Don. On 12 September, the troops of the Ninth Army crossed the Khopyor River and managed to advance 150 to 180 kilometers (93 to 112 mi). Further advance down the Don Bend failed. Selivachev groupOn 15 August, Selivachev's group launched an offensive against a part of the Don Army and the right wing of the Volunteer Army, which numbered 20,500 bayonets, 9,200 sabers, 69 guns, and 208 machine guns. The main blow was inflicted by the Strike group3rd and 42nd infantry divisions and cavalry brigade of the 13th Army, 12th, 15th, 16th, and 13th infantry divisions of the 8th Armyat the junction of the Don and Volunteer armies. The remaining divisions moved in echelons and covered the flanks. The White troops had a strong right flank and an extended center. By 27 August, the troops of the left flank of the Selivachev group had advanced 60 kilometers (37 mi), occupying Novy Oskol, Biryuch and Valuyki. On the right flank they advanced to Belgorod. In the center, after advancing 150 kilometers (93 mi), they approached Kupiansk, and came within 40 kilometers (25 mi) from Kharkov. By 1 September, the group's troops reached the line of VolchanskKupianskValuykiPodgornoy station  north of Rossosh. However, the offensive of the Selivachev group happened without interaction with the Shorin group, along divergent lines, with put the Red troops at a disadvantage. Furthermore, the Mamontov group operated in the rear, breaking up communications and logistic support to both groups. The White Army concentrated large forces on the flanks of the Selivachev group and on 26 August, went on the offensive. From the Belgorod area to Koroch and Novy Oskol, two divisions of the 1st Army Corps under Alexander Kutepov, and the 3rd Kuban Cavalry under General Shkuro, attacked. From the Karpenkov districtKrasnoe, Samoteevka, Biryuchthe 8th Plastun and 2nd Don divisions struck. With these attacks, the White Army tried to surround the main forces of Selivachev's group and defeat them. The Red troops stubbornly defended themselves by the flanks of the 12th and 42nd Infantry Divisions, and by 15 September, retreated to the Seym River, southwest of Stary Oskol and north of Novy Oskol. The 14th Army, in order to assist the Selivachev group, attempted to launch an offensive by crossing the Seym River, but did not achieve success and retreated. ------ World War II of Front & Inside View Camera "Charlie" Gratz was posted in autumn 1941 to 8. Staffel (8th squadron) of Jagdgeschwader 52 (JG 528th squadron of the 52nd Fighter Wing), a squadron of III. Gruppe (3rd group), on the Eastern Front.Note 1 In January 1942, III. Gruppe was ordered to move from Taganrog to an airfield at Kharkov and was subordinated to IV. Fliegerkorps. At the time, the Gruppe was the only fighter unit operating on the left flank of Army Group South, covering the airspace from Belgorod in the north to the Donets Basin in the south, and was equipped with Messerschmitt Bf 109 F-4. On 18 January, Soviet forces launched the BarvenkovoLozovaya Offensive which created the Izium salient. On 15 February, III. Gruppe flew missions in the vicinity of Belgorod and Prokhorovka, over the front lines of the 6th Army. That day, Gratz claimed his first two aerial victories, a Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-3 fighter which at the time was referred to as an I-61, and an Ilyushin Il-2 ground-attack aircraft. On 12 May, German forces launched Operation Fredericus, also referred to as the Second Battle of Kharkov, with the objective to eliminate the Izium bridgehead over Seversky Donets. That day, III. Gruppe was moved to the Charkow-Rogan airfield, southeast of Kharkov, and subordinated to the Stab (headquarters unit) of JG 52. On 13 May, III. Gruppe flew combat missions east and southeast of Kharkov. During the day, the Gruppe claimed 42 aerial victories, including three Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-1 fighters by Gratz. The following day, III. Gruppe predominantly flew fighter escort missions for Junkers Ju 87 dive bombers from VIII. Fliegerkorps attacking Soviet ground forces on the northern pincer, and claimed 52 aerial victories for the loss of one aircraft damaged. That day, Graz became an "ace-in-a-day" for the first time when he shot down two Lavochkin-Gorbunov-Gudkov LaGG-3 and seven MiG-1 fighters, taking his total to 27 aerial victories. During the following days, III. Gruppe continued to fly missions in support of the Army. Gratz claimed two Polikarpov I-16 fighters on 15 May, a single MiG-1 on 16 May, two further MiG-1s on 17 May, and yet another MiG-1 fighter on 18 May. On 20 May, III. Gruppe moved to an airfield at Barwenkowa, approximately 40 kilometres (25 miles) south-southwest of Izium. By the end of May 24, Soviet forces opposite Kharkov had been surrounded by German formations, over the next days, Soviet forces attempt to break the encirclement. During this combat, Gratz claimed four aerial victories on 26 May over two LaGG-3s and two MiG-1s. The next day, he added three further aerial victories to his tally over a LaGG-3 and two MiG-1s. On 29 May, his total reached 42 aerial victories when shot down an I-16 and yet another MiG-1. He received the Honor Goblet of the Luftwaffe (Ehrenpokal der Luftwaffe) on 8 June 1942. He and Oberfeldwebel Karl Steffen received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) on 1 July 1942. The presentation was made by Major Hubertus von Bonin. By late 1942 29 more victories had been claimed. On the Western FrontAfter a spell instructing, Gratz was posted in March 1943 to 11. Staffel (11th squadron) of Jagdgeschwader 2 "Richthofen" (JG 22nd Fighter Wing) on the English channel front. The 11. Staffel was an additional 4th squadron of I. Gruppe of JG 2 which was based at Triquerville and equipped with the Bf 109 G-3. On 1 October 1943, the squadron was renumbered and from then on was known as 4. Staffel of JG 2. On 12 March, Gratz claimed his first aerial victory on the Western Front when he shot down a Supermarine Spitfire fighter 30 km (19 mi) northwest of Fcamp. Fighter Command suffered only one casualty in combat that day. A Spitfire IX, BS548, flown by Captain O Massart of No. 340 Squadron RAF was severely damaged in battle with a Fw 190 belonging to JG 2. The pilot returned unhurt. Massart formed part of a Ramrod patrol to Rouen. On 4 April, he claimed two further Spitfires destroyed in combat 80 km (50 mi) north of Caen. Fighter Command lost ten pilots killed, one captured while two evaded capture with help from the French resistance. JG 26 claimed five, JG 2 claimed six and one fell in combat with JG 1. No. 129 Squadron RAF is known to have engaged JG 2 over the English Channel while on a Roadstead operation. JG 2 claimed two of their number. The only casualty was Flight Sergeant A J Symonds. His body was recovered by a Supermarine Walrus. The following day Gratz claimed a victory near Ostend. Fighter Command carried out two Ramrod operations in the morning and one in the afternoon, losing three fighters in total. 129 Squadron's Sergeant J S Hetherington, in Spitfire AR527, was killed in action with JG 2 on a sweep from Venturas to Landunvez. No. 332 Squadron RAF lost Spitfire ES291 and the pilot Sergeant S N Larssen killed on Ramrod 52 to Haamstede. In the afternoon, another Ramrod to Landunvez killed No. 616 Squadron RAF Flight Lieutenant P B Wright DFC in Spitfire BS465. Gratz received the German Cross in Gold (Deutsches Kreuz in Gold) on 8 June 1943. On 16 August, the Eighth Air Force of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) targeted the Le Bourget airfield near Paris with a large formation of Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress escorted by a number of Republic P-47 Thunderbolt escort fighters. In defense of this attack, I. Gruppe of JG 2 claimed three B-17s and one P-47 shot down for the loss of five pilots killed in action. In this ecounter, Gratz was credited with the destruction of one B-17 shot down 9 km (5.6 mi) southeast of Brtigny. On the Eastern FrontIn March 1944 Gratz returned to JG 52. That month, Gratz was credited with his 100th aerial victory. He was the 64th Luftwaffe pilot to achieve the century mark. and in January 1945 became Staffelkapitn (squadron leader), 10./JG 52. In the last weeks of the war Gratz was particularly successful and claimed 18 victories. After the surrender he was delivered by US military to the Soviet authorities and remained in captivity until 1949.
Knowledge Related to Anterior Segment of Eyeball
Knowledge Related to Anterior Segment of Eyeball
The anterior segment or anterior cavity is the front third of the eye that includes the structures in front of the vitreous humour: the cornea, iris, ciliary body, and lens. Within the anterior segment are two fluid-filled spaces: the anterior chamber between the posterior surface of the cornea (i.e. the corneal endothelium) and the iris. the posterior chamber between the iris and the front face of the vitreous.Aqueous humor fills these spaces within the anterior segment and provides nutrients to the surrounding structures. Some ophthalmologists and optometrists specialize in the treatment and management of anterior segment disorders and diseases. · Other Related Knowledge of Front & Inside View Camera Military career of Front & Inside View Camera Draft and early serviceBorn in Markivka in Kharkov Governorate (today in Ukraine) to a peasant family of Ukrainian (or Russian) ethnicity, Yeryomenko was drafted into the Imperial Army in 1913, serving on the Southwest and Romanian Fronts during World War I. He joined the Red Army in 1918, where he served in the legendary Budyonny Cavalry (First Cavalry Army). He attended the Leningrad Cavalry School and then the Frunze Military Academy, graduating in 1935. In addition to his education, he was appointed to command of a regiment of cavalry in Dec. 1929, then a division in 1937, and then the 6th Cavalry Corps in 1938. Invasion of Eastern PolandOn Sept. 17, 1939, Yeryomenko led his 6th Cavalry Corps into eastern Poland as part of the operations agreed to between Germany and the Soviet Union under the MolotovRibbentrop Pact. In general, this Soviet operation was not efficiently organized. Yeryomenko (whose Corps contained light tank and other motorized elements) was forced to request an emergency airlift of fuel so as to continue his advance. Despite these difficulties, the Corps kept moving, and Yeryomenko earned the nickname "the Russian Guderian". World War IIYeryomenko was given command of the prestigious 1st Red Banner Far Eastern Army, deep in eastern Siberia, where he was serving at the outbreak of Operation Barbarossa on June 22, 1941. Eight days after the invasion began, Yeryomenko was recalled to Moscow, where he was made the Acting Commander of the Soviet Western Front, two days after its original commander, General of the Army Dmitri Pavlov, was dismissed (and later convicted and executed) for incompetence. Yeryomenko was thrust into a very precarious position. The Nazi Blitzkrieg approach to warfare quickly dominated the Western Front, but Yeryomenko motivated the remaining troops, and halted the German offensive just outside Smolensk. During this vicious defensive Battle of Smolensk, Yeryomenko was wounded. Because of his injuries, he was transferred to command the newly created Bryansk Front. In late August, Yeryomenko was ordered to launch counter-offensive operations along the Bryansk Front, primarily against Guderian's Second Panzer Group as it began to move south to trap Kirponos' Southwestern Front around Kiev. Stavka, particularly Stalin and Shaposhnikov, seemed convinced that Yeryomenko could block or distract Guderian's drive and save Kiev from encirclement. The counter-offensive failed to accomplish its objectives despite a valiant effort, leaving Bryansk Front severely weakened. In October the Germans launched Operation Typhoon, which was an offensive aimed at capturing Moscow. Most of Yeryomenko's weakened forces (3rd, 13th and 50th Armies) were partially encircled by Oct. 8 although small units managed to escape for days or weeks following. On Oct. 13, Yeryomenko was once again wounded, this time severely. He was evacuated to a military hospital in Moscow, where he spent several weeks recovering. In January 1942, Yeryomenko was appointed commander of the 4th Shock Army, part of the Northwestern Front. During the Soviet Winter Counteroffensive, Yeryomenko's army was part of the highly successful ToropetsKholm Offensive, which liberated Toropets and much of the surrounding region, helping to create the Rzhev Salient, which became a major battlefield over the next 15 months. On Jan. 20, 1942, Yeryomenko was again wounded, this time in one leg, when German planes bombed his headquarters. Yeryomenko refused to evacuate to a hospital until the battle surrounding him finished. Battle of StalingradYeryomenko's performance in the winter offensives restored Stalin's confidence, and he was given command of the Southeastern Front, on Aug. 1, 1942, where he proceeded to launch powerful counterattacks against the German offensive into the Caucasus, Fall Blau. Yeryomenko and Commissar Nikita Khrushchev planned the defense of Stalingrad, rallying and re-organizing men and equipment falling back to the city from the Don River and the steppes to the west. When one of his subordinates, Gen. Anton Lopatin, doubted if his 62nd Army would be able to defend Stalingrad, Yeryomenko replaced him with Lt. Gen. Vasily Chuikov as Army commander on Sept. 11, 1942. Chuikov and the 62nd Army went on to prove themselves as the defenders of the city, confirming Yeryomenko's judgement. On Sept. 28, the Southeastern Front was renamed the Stalingrad Front. During Operation Uranus, November 1942, Yeryomenko's forces helped to surround the German 6th Army from the south, linking up with the northern penetration at Kalach-na-Donu. German General Erich von Manstein soon attempted to counterattack the Soviet forces and break through the line to relieve the surrounded Germans. Yeryomenko successfully repelled the attack, largely with the forces of the 2nd Guards Army along their fall-back positions on the Myshkova River. After StalingradOn January 1, 1943, the Stalingrad Front was renamed Southern Front. After the end of the winter offensive, in March 1943, Yeryomenko was transferred north to the Kalinin Front, which remained relatively quiet until September, when Yeryomenko launched a small, but successful offensive. In December, Yeryomenko was once again sent south, this time to take command of the Separate Coastal Army, which was put together to retake Crimea, which was accomplished with assistance from Fyodor Tolbukhin's 4th Ukrainian Front. In April, Yeryomenko once again was sent north, to command the 2nd Baltic Front. During the summer campaign, 2nd Baltic was very successful in crushing German opposition, and was able to capture Riga, helping to bottle up some 30 German divisions in Latvia. On March 26, 1945, Yeryomenko was transferred to the command of the 4th Ukrainian Front, the unit he controlled until the end of the war. Fourth Ukrainian was positioned in Eastern Hungary. Yeryomenko's subsequent offensive helped capture the rest of Hungary, and paved the way for the Soviet liberation of Czechoslovakia. His army liberated many cities and towns in Czechoslovakia, most notably Ostrava. Today, many streets in the Czech Republic bear his name. ------ Second formation of Front & Inside View Camera The division was reformed under the command of Colonel Alexander Chizhov between April and 13 May 1942 at Volokolamsk, just west of Moscow in the Moscow Military District, from the 55th Rifle Brigade. It included the 1026th, 1028th, and the 1030th Rifle Regiments, as well as the 738th Artillery Regiment. The 260th was assigned to the Moscow Defense Zone in July, and then to the Voronezh Front reserves in September. In late September it was moved to the front as part of the 1st Guards Army of the Don Front, holding positions to the northwest of Stalingrad. In late September, for "nonfulfillment of military tasks" in the Samofolovka area, Chizhov was relieved of command and demoted to become chief of staff of the 273rd Rifle Division. He was replaced by Colonel Grigory Miroshnichenko, who led the 260th in counterattacks against German troops who had broken through to the Volga from the Samofolovka area. From late September, it led attacks in an attempt to capture Khutor Borodkin. The 1st Guards Army was withdrawn to the Reserve of the Supreme High Command (RVGK) in mid-October, and the division transferred to the 24th Army of the front. The division fought in the Battle of Stalingrad during Operation Uranus and Operation Koltso between November 1942 and February 1943, successively part of the 24th and 65th Armies of the Don Front. Until January, it fought in the Kotluban area at checkpoint 564. Beginning on 18 January, the 260th advanced on the Barrikady Factory. After the battle ended with the surrender of the German 6th Army in early February, the 260th was transferred to the Don Front reserve, then to the Stalingrad Group of Forces. At the end of March, the division relocated to the Tula area as part of the 11th Army in the RVGK. The army transferred to the Western Front on 12 July and to the Bryansk Front on 30 July, fighting in Operation Kutuzov and the Bryansk Offensive during the summer offensive. About 18 August Miroshnichenko was seriously wounded and evacuated to a hospital; he was replaced by Colonel Stepan Maximovsky. The 260th became part of the army's 53rd Rifle Corps in August, fighting in battles for Bryansk and the crossing of the Desna River, during which Maximovsky was wounded and evacuated. He was briefly replaced by Colonel Gennady Pankov, who was in turn replaced by Colonel Vasily Bulgakov in November, when it was part of the Belorussian Front during the GomelRechitsa Offensive. During that operation, the division crossed the Sozh River and helped capture Gomel. After it transitioned to the defensive on the approach to Zhlobin and the disbandment of the 11th Army, the division and its corps became part of the 63rd Army. In December the division fought in attacks to the north of Gomel and Zhlobin. The division transferred back to the RVGK in the Moscow Military District at the end of January, and was briefly assigned to the 70th Army, joining the 125th Rifle Corps, which was in the process of formation, in February. With the corps, the division was sent to the 47th Army of the Belorussian Front in the Sarny area later that month. With the army it fought in attacks towards Kovel. For its actions at Kovel the 260th received the honorific Kovel and the Order of the Red Banner. In May it transferred to the army's 129th Rifle Corps. The 260th fought in Operation Bagration between June and August, crossing the Western Bug and participating in the capture of the Warsaw suburb of Praga during the LublinBrest Offensive. In December Bulgakov was replaced by Colonel Ivan Popov after the former departed for courses. At the beginning of January 1945 Colonel Yakov Gorshenin replaced Popov. The division fought in the WarsawPoznan Offensive of the VistulaOder Strategic Offensive from January 1945, distinguishing itself in the capture of Jabonna, the crossing of the Vistula, and the battle for Warsaw, and the siege of Bromberg. In February, the division transferred to the army's 77th Rifle Corps. On 6 April it received the Order of Suvorov, 2nd class, for its actions. The division went on to fight in the East Pomeranian Offensive and the Berlin Offensive, in the battles for Deutsch-Krone and Schneidemuhl, the crossing of the Oder and the Havel and the capture of Brandenburg. Gorshenin was demoted promoted to deputy corps commander after late April, being replaced by Major General Pyotr Polyakov. The 260th ended the war with the corps in the Berlin Offensive in May. Postwar, the division became part of the Group of Soviet Occupation Forces in Germany with the 129th Rifle Corps, still part of the 47th Army. In early 1946, it was transferred to the 7th Rifle Corps of the 3rd Shock Army. In June 1946, the 260th was withdrawn with the corps to the Moscow Military District, where it was disbanded.
Knowledge Related to Knox College, Toronto
Knowledge Related to Knox College, Toronto
Knox College is a postgraduate theological college of the University of Toronto in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It was founded in 1844 as part of a schism movement in the Church of Scotland following the Disruption of 1843. Knox is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church in Canada and confers doctoral degrees as a member school of the Toronto School of Theology. · Other Related Knowledge of Front & Inside View Camera Campus and architecture of Front & Inside View Camera Knox college provides a number of facilities to the University of Toronto community, including Knox College Chapel. The chapel is noted for its Hellmuth Wolff organ. The chapel has a large south-facing window that is largely unobstructed by other buildings. As a result, natural sunlight streams in through the window. The glass is such that it softens the light to some degree, but without taking away its directionality. Seating is provided by two rows of pews on either side of the central aisle. There is a front piece in front of the frontmost pews for hymn books of those at the front of the congregation. Chancel organThis organ was built in 1915 by Casavant and is original to the building. It is split between two chambers at the front of the room and consists of 26 stops and 24 ranks. The console was replaced in 1959, and in 1974 a four-rank mixture was added to the Great. It has Ventil chests and electro-pneumatic action. Gallery organIn 1991, a second, 32-stop, three-manual instrument was added in a new rear gallery. (photo) (photo) It is an historically oriented organ in the North German baroque style, built as Opus 33 by Wolff & Associs of Laval, Quebec. The pipework is modelled on the Johan Niclas Cahman organ at Leufsta Bruk, Sweden from 1726/28. The case, though, is a modern interpretation of north-European style that does not refer to any particular historic instrument. The key action and stop action are both mechanical. The two bellows can be pumped either by foot or with an electric blower. Notably, the Wolff organ is tuned to a modified fifth comma meantone temperament devised by Harald Vogel following 17th-century Swedish theorists. This same tuning has been used for the Arp Schnitger organ in Norden, Germany. ------ Academics of Front & Inside View Camera Knox College is a wholly postgraduate institution, conferring four master's degrees and two doctorate degrees. It administers both academic programs for the general-interest study of theology and professional programs. The basic degree program comprises the degrees of Master of Divinity, Master of Pastoral Studies, Master of Theological Studies and Master of Religious Education. The advanced degrees of Master of Arts in Theology, Master of Theology, Doctor of Philosophy in Theological Studies and Doctor of Ministry are awarded conjointly with the University of Toronto. Certificate in Theological Studies (C.T.S) Master of Divinity (M.Div.) Master of Pastoral Studies (M.P.S.) Master of Theological Studies (M.T.S.) Master of Arts in Theology (M.A.Th.) Master of Theology (Th.M.) Doctor of Philosophy in Theological Studies (Ph.D.T.S.) Doctor of Ministry (D.Min.) ------ Principals of Front & Inside View Camera Michael Willis (18571870) William Caven (18731904) William MacLaren (19041909) Alfred Gandier (19091925; became principal of Emmanuel College) Thomas Eakin (19261940) Walter W. Bryden (19451952) Stanley Glen (19521976) Allan Farris (19761977 death) J. Charles Hay (19781985) Donald J. M. Corbett (19851990) Arthur Van Seters (19921999) J. Dorcas Gordon (19992017) John A. Vissers (2017-)A number of faculty have served as Acting Principal during vacancies and sabbaticals. The convener of the Board of Governors of Knox College is Peter Ross. ------ History of Front & Inside View Camera Controversy arising from the issue of state control in the Church of Scotland led to the Disruption of 1843 and the establishment of the Free Church of Scotland. In response, several Presbyterian ministers and congregations within the Canadian synod of the Church of Scotland switched their affiliation to the new denomination. Queen's College, a Presbyterian seminary in Kingston, decided in 1844 to remain affiliated with the Church of Scotland, prompting some of its students to defect and establish Knox College in Toronto. Named for Scottish Reformation theologian John Knox, the new college became affiliated with the Free Church. The first class included 14 students and took place on November 5, 1844, in the home of Rev. Henry Esson on James Street, at the present site of Toronto Eaton Centre. For the next two years, Knox College transitioned to larger buildings acquired at Adelaide Street and later Front Street, at the present site of the Fairmont Royal York Hotel. Scottish minister Rev. Dr. Michael Willis, the founding president of the Anti-Slavery Society of Canada (1851), became the first principal of the college in 1857. Willis came to Toronto in 1846 from St. John's Renfield Church, Glasgow, where he followed Thomas Chalmers and took part in the Disruption of 1843. Knox was formally granted its charter from the colonial government in 1858, thereby possessing the authority to confer academic degrees. In 1861, the Canada Presbyterian Church was created from the union of the Canadian synods of the Free Church of Scotland with the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland. Knox College absorbed the existing United Presbyterian Church theological college that was founded in London, Canada West in 1844. In 1867, Knox College assisted the establishment of The Presbyterian College, Montreal, as the second theological college affiliated with the Canadian Presbyterian Church. Knox College donated some of the books from its library collection, and several Knox alumni served as faculty of The Presbyterian College. In 1875, Knox College moved to a new Gothic-revival building at 1 Spadina Crescent, and operated as the main seminary for the newly formed Presbyterian Church in Canada. Towards the end of the century, Knox began encouraging its students to attend non-divinity studies at the nearby University College of the University of Toronto. Knox College entered formal affiliation with the University of Toronto in 1885. In 1890, Knox College became part of the university within a federated governance structure. In 1915, Knox College moved to its present site adjacent to University College. During World War II, Knox College accommodated faculty and students from The Presbyterian College, Montreal, whose building was used for military training until 1946. In 1969, Knox became a founding member of the Toronto School of Theology. By virtue of an amendment of its charter, Knox College has granted theology degrees conjointly with the university and the Toronto School of Theology since 1978. Ewart College, a women's college of the Presbyterian Church, was merged into Knox College in 1991. Founded in 1897, Ewart College was initially known as the Presbyterian Missionary and Deaconess Training School and then Ewart Missionary Training Home after Catherine Seaton Ewart in 1960. In 2005, Knox observed its 160th anniversary with a visit and lecture by Alison Elliot, the Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. ------ Further reading of Front & Inside View Camera Brian J. Fraser. Church, College, and Clergy: A History of Theological Education at Knox College, Toronto, 1844-1994. McGill-Queen's University Press, 1995. Gordon Goldie et al. A Covenant for Tomorrow, 1979-1987. Toronto: Knox College, 1987. Richard W. Vaudry. "Theology and education in early Victorian Canada: Knox College, Toronto, 1844-62". Studies in Religion, 16.4 (Fall 1987), p. 434-35.
Knowledge Related to Moro Islamic Liberation Front
Knowledge Related to Moro Islamic Liberation Front
The Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF; Arabic: Jabhat Tarr Moro al-Islmiyyah) is a group based in Mindanao, Philippines seeking an autonomous region of the Moro people from the central government. The group has a presence in the Bangsamoro region of Mindanao, the Sulu Archipelago, Palawan, Basilan, and other neighbouring islands. The armed wing of the group was the Bangsamoro Islamic Armed Forces (BIAF) although the name of the parent organization MILF, was often used to refer to BIAF. · Other Related Knowledge of Front & Inside View Camera Struggles of Front & Inside View Camera Memorandum of Agreement on Ancestral DomainOn August 4, 2008, the Supreme Court of the Philippines issued a temporary restraining order, preventing the Government and the MILF from officially signing the Memorandum of Agreement on Ancestral Domain, which would conclude all dispute and begin formal talks that would lead to the drafting and eventual signing of a Final Comprehensive Compact between the two groups. The Court accepted motions by the southern provincial governments that object to the extended boundaries for the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao envisioned in the peace deal. The MOA-AD would have allowed the Moro people gained control of the region under the concept of human rights with the right to establish a police force and to control natural resources. The MOA-AD was initialed by former governor and peace panel chair Rodolfo Garca and Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process Hermogenes Esperon and MILF peace panel chair Mohagher Iqbal on July 27 in Malaysia. It was scheduled for formal signing on August 5, but the Supreme Court issued no negotiation preventing the executive department from signing the agreement. The MOA-AD is the last of several agenda items under the 2001 agreement of the GRP-MILF. after security and relief and rehabilitation, prior to the discussion on the political settlement. The Young Moro Professionals Network (YMPN) appealed to the public not to be afraid of the MOA-AD and to "open your hearts to the Moro grievance". The YMPN said in a statement dated August 21: "In these times of hardship, we hold hands as one, with our Christian and Islamic neighbours, in the name of peace, acceptance and justice. We are committed to democratic and peaceful resolution of the conflict. Do not be afraid of the MOA-AD. To the national public, open your hearts to the Moro grievance. "Over the next month, several MILF commanders were tagged by government officials as having initiated an offensive campaign. This was responded by the Armed Forces of the Philippines, which immediately deployed ten battalions composed of a total of 6,000 soldiers into Mindanao under the command of Lt. Gen. Cardozo Luna. The violence displaced over 600,000 people and left about 300 dead. On October 14, 2008, the Court conducted a series of divided votes declared "contrary to law and the Constitution" the MOA-AD of the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and Moro Islamic Liberation Front Tripoli Agreement of Peace on 2001. The document of Conchita Carpio-Morales ruled: "In sum, the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process committed grave abuse of discretion when he failed to carry out the pertinent consultation process. The furtive process by which the MOA-AD was designed and crafted runs contrary to and in excess of the legal authority and amounts to a whimsical, capricious, oppressive, arbitrary and despotic exercise thereof. It illustrates a gross evasion of positive duty and a virtual refusal to perform the duty enjoined." Civil society organizations such as Consortium of Bangsamoro Civil Society had submitted a Motion for Reconsideration. However, the Supreme Court affirmed its October 14 ruling that declared unconstitutional the initialed MOA-AD between the Philippine government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front on November 21, 2008. MILF soldiers offered to help free the Irish priest father Michael Sinott, who was kidnapped in the Philippines on October 14, 2009 and sought permission to deploy about 100 of its soldiers in the area where Sinnott is believed to be held. However it was turned down by the Philippine government. Modification of demandsOn September 23, 2010, Mohagher Iqbal said that the MILF will pursue a substate, likened to a U.S. state, instead of independence from the Philippines. The Muslim substate would not exercise power over national defense, foreign affairs, currency and coinage, and postal services, which the central government exercises. Igbal further added that the substate would not have its own armed forces but instead would have troops for internal security. Peace talksOn October 7, 2012, President Benigno Aquino announced a peace deal with the MILF and that "This framework agreement paves the way for a final and enduring peace in Mindanao". MILF Vice Chairman Ghazali Jaafar is quoted as saying "We are very happy. We thank the president for this." The deal was signed on October 15, 2012. Its aim is to pave the way to enduring peace between the two parties by officially envisaging an autonomous region in Mindanao. According to the framework, this semi-independent Muslim area would have a more just share of revenues from the extraction of its own plentiful resources, budgetary autonomy, its own police, and sharia law only for Muslims. In exchange for this, the MILF will stop armed movements against the government for autonomy and will allow the national government to retain its control of national security and foreign policy. The autonomy agreement to be gradually implemented will also rename the region Bangsamoro after the Moro people. Chief peace negotiator Miriam Coronel-Ferrer said that the government was cautiously optimistic for a final agreement soon following six days of talks on July 13, 2013. He said: "This signing indicates that both sides are really committed to finish the peace negotiations. Nobody wants this not to reach its fruition." The agreement would see government allowances for the MILF to have a 75 percent share of earnings from natural resources and metallic minerals in a proposed autonomous region. For other energy resources, earnings would be split equally in accordance with Malaysia-brokered talks. Peace agreementOn January 24, 2014, Philippine government chief negotiator Miriam Coronel Ferrer and MILF chief negotiator Mohagher Iqbal signed a peace agreement in Kuala Lumpur. The agreement would pave the way for the creation of the new Muslim autonomous entity called "Bangsamoro" under a law to be approved by the Philippine Congress. The government aims to set up the region by 2016. The agreement calls for Muslim self-rule in parts of the southern Philippines in exchange for a deactivation of rebel forces by the MILF. MILF forces would turn over their firearms to a third party selected by the MILF and the Philippine government. A regional police force would be established, and the Philippine military would reduce the presence of troops and help disband private armies in the area. President Rodrigo Duterte signed the law, a key step to ending a Muslim rebellion in the south of the mainly Catholic Philippines. In early January 2020, the OPAPP announced progress exceeding its target for the decommissioning of MILF fighters, noting that 8,879 out of the 12,000 MILF combatants were decommissioned from the last quarter of 2019. Some former rebel fighters have joined the police and military to protect certain areas of the Bangsamoro region until an elected government is established in 2022. ------ History of Front & Inside View Camera The Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) is a Moro and Lumad group formed in 1969 following the Jabidah massacre which happened in 1968 to achieve greater Bangsamoro autonomy in the southern Philippines. The MNLF took part in terrorist attacks and assassinations to achieve their goals. The government in Manila sent troops into the southern Philippines to control the insurgency. In 1976, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi brokered a negotiation between the Philippine government and MNLF Leader Nur Misuari which led to the signing of the MNLF-GRPH Tripoli Agreement of 1976 wherein the MNLF accepted the Philippine government's offer of semi-autonomy of the regions in dispute. The signing of this agreement brought about a serious rift in MNLF leadership, leading to the formation of a breakaway group in 1977 by Hashim Salamat and 57 MNLF officers. The group was initially known as "The New Leadership". Misuari expelled Salamat in December 1977, after which Salamat moved his new organization first to Cairo, Egypt and then, in 1980, to Lahore, Pakistan, where it engaged in diplomatic activities. This organization was formally established in 1984 as the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. Muammar Gaddafi became a longstanding supporter of the MILF after its emergence. In January 1987, the MNLF accepted the Philippine government's offer of semi-autonomy of the regions in dispute, subsequently leading to the establishment of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao on November 6, 1990. The MILF, however, refused to accept this offer and continued their insurgency operations. A general cessation of hostilities between the government in Manila and the MILF was signed in July 1997 but this agreement was abolished in 2000 by the Philippine Army under the administration of Philippine President Joseph Estrada. In response, the MILF declared a jihad against the government, its citizens and supporters. Under President Gloria Arroyo, the government entered into a cease-fire agreement with the MILF and resumed peace talks. Despite peace negotiations and the cease-fire agreement, the MILF attacked government troops in Maguindanao resulting in at least twenty-three deaths in January 2005. The combined armies of the MILF and Abu Sayyaf were involved in days of fighting which necessitated government troops using heavy artillery to engage rebel forces. The bombing incident in Davao Airport in 2003 which the Philippine government blamed on MILF members, raised speculation that the peace negotiations might be ineffectual in bringing peace to Mindanao if the MILF is unable to control its operatives. The MILF denies ties with terrorist group Jemaah Islamiyah, although Jemaah Islamiyah is considered to have provided them with training facilities in areas they control. The MILF also continues to deny connections with Al-Qaeda, though it has admitted to sending around 600 volunteers to Al-Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan and that Osama Bin Laden sent money to the Philippines, though the group denies directly receiving any payment. From June 28 to July 6, 2006, conflict between the MILF and armed civilian volunteers under Maguindanao Province governor Andal Ampatuan who were supported by the Philippine Army had been reported. The fighting began after governor Ampatuan blamed the MILF for a June 23 bomb attack on his motorcade, which killed five in his entourage. The MILF denied responsibility, but Ampatuan sent police and civilian volunteers to arrest MILF members connected to the attack. Four thousand families were reported displaced by the fighting that followed, which was ended by a cease-fire agreement signed on July 10 and 11. Talks between the MILF and the government collapsed in 2008 after a Supreme Court decision in Sema vs. COMELEC which rejected a preliminary accord that would have expanded the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. In 2011, the MILF withdrew their demands for independence, instead saying that they would pursue substate status, likened to a U.S. state instead of independence from the Philippines.
Common Faults and Solutions When the Control Machine of Parking Lot Management System Spits Cards_ T
Common Faults and Solutions When the Control Machine of Parking Lot Management System Spits Cards_ T
In the past two years, although the card free parking lot system has been widely used in our life, due to the impact of some on-site environment, at present, the parking lot management system through card collection and swiping in and out of the parking lot is still widely used in some communities and other places. Of course, although each set of equipment has undergone a lot of tests when it comes out, but, In the subsequent use process, some problems will inevitably occur, and the card swiping parking lot system is no exception. For all parking lot management systems, we may encounter a common problem, that is, the gate does not lift or does not fall after lifting. Of course, in this case, we can manually remotely control the rise and fall of the gate rod, which will not affect the normal operation of the parking lot for the time being; But if there is a problem with the control machine of the parking lot management system, how can we solve it? The controller of the parking lot management system cannot normally exit the card, which may be caused by the following reasons: 1. At the entrance of the parking lot, the ground sensor cannot sense the vehicle, resulting in the controller unable to eject the card; 2. The inserted card is deformed or the surface is damaged, resulting in blocking at the card outlet when the card is out; 3. When the card in the recycle bin is full, the ground pressure will no longer spit out the card. If the above situations occur, the solutions are as follows: we should ensure that the cards put into the card reader are intact, and regularly check whether the ground feeling at the entrance card reader is normal, whether the cards in the recycling bin are full, etc. There is another situation that we often encounter. At the entrance of the parking lot, the card machine swallows the card, and costs are incurred. The reasons for this situation may be: 1. The card is invalid and the card is recycled; 2. When the card dispenser spits the card to the exit, the ground feeling is released before the card is picked up, resulting in the card being recycled, or the ground feeling is not released, but after the card picking time, the card is automatically recycled, etc. When such a situation occurs, we should regularly check the cards in the recycling warehouse and deal with them in time to prevent relevant expenses. When there are too many cards in the recycling warehouse, they should be handled by the person in charge. All kinds of problems will inevitably occur in the use of any kind of equipment, and so will the parking lot management system. Therefore, we should think of solutions to these problems before they occur, and we can deal with them freely at that time.
Development and Application of Face Recognition Payment Technology_ Taigewang Technology
Development and Application of Face Recognition Payment Technology_ Taigewang Technology
Face recognition payment system is a payment platform based on face recognition system. It was first launched by the Finnish startup uniqul in July 2013. The system does not need a wallet, credit card or mobile phone. When paying, it only needs to face the camera on the POS screen. The system will automatically associate the consumer's facial information with the personal account. The whole transaction process is very convenient. In the same year, the intelligent multimedia technology research center of Chongqing Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences launched the research on this payment method. Zhou Xi, director of the center, introduced that as of August 2014, the center had completed the research on Key Technologies of face recognition payment system. The center's first face data acquisition array in the world can synchronously collect faces from 91 angles, and can achieve the best recognition effect for the most influential states such as changeable illumination, multi angle and occlusion. The face recognition system of intelligent multimedia technology research center has been applied to automatic customs clearance system of border inspection station, dynamic face recognition attendance machine, multi-attribute dynamic face recognition system, etc. On this basis, the center has developed a face recognition mobile payment system, which can pay only by swiping a face card. Face recognition is a biometric technology for identity authentication based on people's facial feature information. The biggest feature of the technology is that it can avoid personal information leakage and recognize in a non-contact way. Face recognition, fingerprint recognition, palmprint recognition, retinal recognition, bone recognition and heartbeat recognition all belong to human biometric recognition technology. They all came into being with the rapid development of photoelectric technology, microcomputer technology, image processing technology and pattern recognition. Identification can be carried out quickly, accurately and healthily; It is non reproducible. Even after cosmetic surgery, the technology can find the original you from hundreds of facial features. Face recognition system has been widely used in the world. In China, it has been widely used in many important industries and fields such as public security, security, customs, finance, military, airports, border ports and security, as well as civil markets such as intelligent access control, door locks, attendance, mobile phones, digital cameras and intelligent toys.
Who Is Leading the Continuous Progress of the Parking System_ Taigewang Technology
Who Is Leading the Continuous Progress of the Parking System_ Taigewang Technology
Parking lot system has been used by people for a long time. As the equipment used to manage the entry and exit of vehicles in the parking lot, it is a must in the parking lot. The current parking lot system has developed from relying solely on manual management to automatic card / ticket collection, Bluetooth remote card reading, license plate recognition and other ways to get in and out, making our parking more convenient. With the development of technology, the function of the parking lot system has developed from the previous only used to manage the entry and exit of vehicles to the current intelligent and unmanned parking lot management systems such as license plate recognition, parking space guidance, reverse car search and self-service payment. This great progress makes the parking lot system play its role to the greatest extent in the parking lot. At present, the application scope of parking lot system is becoming wider and wider. It is not only applied in major parking lots, such as some communities, hospitals, schools, government units and other places. In order to facilitate management, intelligent parking lot management system is also being installed, which can not only facilitate the management of incoming and outgoing vehicles, but also ensure the parking safety of vehicles. Nowadays, Internet technology is becoming more and more popular. In order to manage multiple parking lots more conveniently, networking will also be implemented, that is, what people call cloud parking lots. The most remarkable feature of cloud parking lots is that it can uniformly manage multiple parking lots not in the same area. It can query the data reports of each parking lot in real time, avoiding the problem of secondary report consolidation, At the same time, the monitoring screen of each parking lot can be monitored in real time to avoid the phenomenon of illegal opening. Now some logistics parks, residential properties and other large places in many places have begun to build cloud platforms for the convenience of management, saving a lot of human, material and financial resources.
The Prospect of License Plate Recognition System, an Indispensable Parking System in Intelligent Tra
The Prospect of License Plate Recognition System, an Indispensable Parking System in Intelligent Tra
With the rapid development of urbanization in China, the traffic pressure is becoming more and more severe. Intelligent traffic management has become the general direction of traffic development. In the automotive field, the parking market segment has always been regarded as a trillion cake, especially in the first tier cities. Parking is basically just needed like housing. In view of the pain points of the parking industry, the state has put forward a proposal to speed up the construction of intelligent transportation to better guide citizens to travel; Various parking lot system manufacturers have put forward various solutions conducive to parking lot management; For example, license plate recognition system, parking space guidance system, reverse vehicle search system, cloud parking and other parking schemes and measures. As the basic equipment of the entrance and exit of the parking lot system, the license plate recognition system is the basis for the realization of other systems. At the same time, the license plate number is the only mark for vehicle identification. Only rapid and accurate recognition of the license plate is the premise for the realization of other parking lot management. License plate recognition technology has been applied in the security industry for a long time, and the technology is relatively mature. The application of artificial intelligence improves the accuracy of license plate recognition. In recent years, license plate recognition system is also widely used in expressway, so as to realize the non-stop traffic of vehicles. How to select a set of high-quality license plate recognition system has become the primary task to solve the problem of parking lot management. Considering the quality of a set of license plate recognition system, there are three indicators, namely recognition rate, recognition speed and background management system. Of course, the prerequisite to ensure these is that the system can operate stably and reliably. After years of development, license plate recognition system has become a more mature technology, and is used more and more in parking lots. More convenient parking methods create a good parking environment for people. At the same time, license plate recognition technology will gradually develop to high-definition, integration and intelligence, and continue to play an important role in various application systems.
With the Arrival of Intelligent Parking Lot, See Taigewang Technology to Create the Most Humanized P
With the Arrival of Intelligent Parking Lot, See Taigewang Technology to Create the Most Humanized P
Intelligent transportation is a new industry in the field of security. With the increase of vehicles, intelligent parking lots are also in full swing. Taking intelligent transportation as the key deployment field, the parking lot system is also developing towards a more intelligent, safer and more convenient direction, so as to promote the construction of intelligent cities in China. Speaking of parking lots, advanced management technologies such as card management, license plate recognition and remote card reading related to entrance and exit control are used to improve the efficiency of entrance and exit of parking lots and bring more parking options to car owners. In order to bring more convenient parking to car owners, many parking lot system manufacturers are actively exploring new management modes, To develop in a more comprehensive and reasonable direction. With the rapid development of various technologies and the rapid change of products, forward-looking research and development is very important for parking lot system manufacturers. If the products can not fully meet the needs of the market, taigewang technology has always focused on the research and development of parking lot system and is committed to building the most intelligent parking lot system products. Taigewang technology is the founder of the all-in-one card cloud platform. Through the construction of parking cloud platform and property cloud platform, it controls the service entrance and creates a new mode of intelligent management for users. At present, taigewang parking lot system is gradually upgraded according to the changes of users' needs. It creates an integrated parking mode for users through a variety of intelligent functions such as license plate recognition, parking space guidance, reverse car search and self-service payment. In order to ensure the parking safety of owners' vehicles, people can also lock their vehicles through wechat. As a leading domestic manufacturer and solution provider of high-end intelligent all-in-one card products based on cloud computing service platform, taigewang parking lot system will always be at the forefront of intelligent technology, actively explore some science and technology, and create a high-tech and more intelligent parking lot system.
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Shenzhen TGW Technology Co.,Ltd is the leading access control solution provider for vehicle intelligent parking system, license plate recognition recognition system and pedestrian access control turnstile and face recognition terminals.
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