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Reconstruction: the Mighty Camera

At the core of DroneDeploy is a product called Map Engine that is able to quickly and accurately reconstruct 3D scenes from a collection of photographs without any prior knowledge of where the photos were taken, or what they contain. This is one of the core problems of the field of photogrammetry which draws on techniques from computer vision and machine learning extensively. Being able to do this is powerful, as a digital camera is a lot cheaper and easier to move around than a 3D scanner but you do need some smart software.

Reconstruction: the Mighty Camera 1

This is the first of three posts describing how this process takes place from beginning to end. We will also be implementing a simple and educational pipeline that reconstructs 3D scenes from 2D images.First we are going to look at some of the fundamentals of cameras and code up some building blocks.

Our story starts with the mighty digital camera. Cameras use light to capture a 2D representation of the 3D world by exposing a sensor to light that is focused through a lens. This creates a digital image.

Photographers talk about cameras in terms of shutter speed, focal length and ISO. Here is a great interactive illustration of how these factors affect the final image.In computer vision we approach cameras differently and are concerned rather with the external and internal geometry of the camera.

The external geometry, called the extrinsics represents how the world is transformed relative to the camera when we look through it. Its usually more intuitive to specify where the camera is in the world than how it transforms the world though. This is called the pose and we specify it as a matrix [R | t]where R is a 3x3 rotation matrix and t is a 3x1 translation vector.

Reconstruction: the Mighty Camera 2

The extrinsics are then E = [R',-R'*t]. This inversion of the pose transforms the world so that we are effectively looking down the optical axis of the camera. Next we have the internal geometry of the camera, called the intrinsics which represent a conversion to pixels.

Two important values here are the camera center (also called the principal point) and the focal length. Together in 3x3 matrix as K this represents a scaling and translation. This is is as mapping pixels into the image based on the field of field of the camera and where the pinhole of the camera is.

We can now create a projection matrix as P = K * E. Together the camera projection matrix can be thought of as acting on a 3D point as a rotation translation, followed by a translation and scaling yielding the final image coordinates. Which might call off the edges of the image depending on the resolution in pixelsProjectionLets implement a simple pinhole camera.

We can now use the projection matrix of a camera to transform 3D world points to 2D image coordinates. We represent out world coordinates at 4D homogenous coordinates and then multiple by the projection matrix and normalize to get image coordinates. Lets test this out by creating some 3D world points.

Well create the vertices of a cube and place the camera backwards long the z-axis. Well then project each of the vertices of the cube into the camera and we should get a 2D representation. The resulting image shows our cube and correctly captures the perspective introduced by the back face being further from the camera than the the front.

Aside: DecompositionWe can also go backwards and decompose the projection into its K, R, t components remembering that the structure is P = K[R | -R'*C]we can first extract t and decompose the remainder to get K and R. Unfortunately this decomposition is not unique because if you take the resulting R and Q matrices from the RQ decomposition and negate a row and corresponding column of R and Q the resulting projection matrix is the same. Positioning the cameraUp until now weve just had our camera looking down the z-axis which isnt that exciting.

We want to fearlessly be able to place our camera anywhere and pointing in any direction. Placing the camera anywhere is easy we just specify the position t. Pointing it in any direction is a bit less intuitive because we have to specify the orientation as a rotation matrix.

One way to do this is to construct the rotation matrix of the pose as the axes of the camera in world coordinates with the first axis being the direction the camera is pointing and the other two: a vector through the top of the camera and a vector through the side of the camera. Heres a function to position the cameras somewhere looking at a certain point:Implementing this we can position the camera anywhere and look in any direction. Lets test it out and position the camera randomly around our cube and use our existing projection code to look at the cube from different anglesYoull notice an optical illusion here in that the cube will look skew in some images.

As your eyes sort out the orientation you will see them square up. The reason is because we arent sorting the edges by their depth from the camera meaning some lines in the 2D images are draw over other lines that they should be behind. If we wanted to clear this up we should sort our geometry by their depth from the camera and render in that order.

Some more visualizationNow that we can position and look through arbitrary cameras lets visualize the camera positions instead of just what they see. We can do this my placing another camera looking at the whole scene of cameras and render the position of each camera along with its axes and frustum. The result is our whole scene of cameras looking as our cube.

TriangulationNow we should be pretty comfortable with cameras and mapping the 3D world to 2D images. But can we go backwards? Lets try and reconstruct the 3D vertices of the cube from a 2D picture.

Unfortunately we cant do this from a single view because a pixel corresponds to a ray extending out into the real world and the 3D point could lie anywhere along that ray. But if we had a few different poses of the camera the rays should pass through the same corresponding pixel each image and intersect at a unique point in the 3D world. Take a look at this picture to convince yourself that you need at least two pixels to reconstruct a 3D point.

If we take two images of our cube and write out how two 2D pixels were computed from the 3D points using the two projection matrices ( P1 and P2 ) we end up with a linear system of equation. We could try and solve this but a couple of things go wrong here, the matrix is typically not square (unless you have two views and so the inverse doesnt work. A better and more numerically stable way is to instead look as it as a homogeneous systems of equations.

This has a trivial solution at 0 0 0 which we are not super excited about but if we take the singular-value decomposition (SVD) of this matrix and take the singular vector corresponding to the smallest singular value we get a solution to the system with some useful additional properties. In particular it constrains the solution vector to have a magnitude of 1 so avoids the trivial solution. Its also numerically stable and when use to solve over-determined systems naturally.

Lets code this up and create a function that takes a list of cameras and corresponding list of image coordinates and triangulates them.More triangulationThe SVD based triangulation makes two assumptions. The first is the error term we are looking to minimize and the second is how the camera operates on 3D points namely as a linear operation.

We can also triangulate points using a non-linear solver. We can frame this as a problem where we seek the X, Y, Z coordinates in the world such that they project into the corresponding image coordinates in each camera we are considering. We can use something like LevenbergMarquardt to solve this problem.

Although this takes longer than our analytical solution it allows use to be more flexible about some things. For example instead of least square we can use different norms like the Huber norm to handle outliers in our data. This is useful as we will see in the next post where we dont know exactly where our 3D and 2D points are.

Another advantage is that we can use more sophisticated camera models that cant just be represented as a matrix multiplication.DistortionWe just mentioned more sophisticated camera models up until now we have dealt just with an ideal camera called a pinhole camera. In the real world cameras are not as perfect.

Due to imperfections and tolerances in the manufacturing process each camera is slightly different and also the lens used can introduce types of distortion. For example a photograph of a scene with perfectly straight lines may appear to bend in the image. This can cause problems if not handled correctly as typically the reconstructions are used for measurement and planning.

Heres a simple implementation of a BrownConrady camera model:Now lets vary some of the radial and tangential distortion parameters and see what it does to our cube projection.Unfortunately the distortion parameters are not printed on the box of the camera and have to be estimated from the correspondence between between coordinates in different images. This is something we will be solving in the next post.

So that completes our brief walkthrough of camera fundamentals. Weve talked about how to position cameras in the world and view a scene from different locations. We looked at constructing and decomposing the projection matrix.

Weve also looked at reconstructing the position of 3D world points from 2D image coordinates. In the following posts we will tackle the problem of reconstructing 3D scenes using these fundamentals but without any ground truth data like our cube

The License Plate Recognition System Requires That the High Pick-up Card Parking Lot System still Ha
The License Plate Recognition System Requires That the High Pick-up Card Parking Lot System still Ha
License plate recognition technology is combined with parking lot system, and the most well-known is license plate recognition system. It is believed that many parking lots are also using this type of parking lot management system. At the same time, we can realize the convenience and security brought by the application of license plate recognition technology to the parking lot system. However, some people said that the license plate recognition technology has a little high requirements for the environment and vehicles, and the license plate recognition system still can not completely replace the current card taking parking lot system. In recent years, with the continuous development of license plate recognition technology, the parking lot system has also made new progress. Today, common parking lot systems mainly include card retrieval parking lot system, license plate recognition parking lot system, Bluetooth remote card reading parking lot system, etc. they not only have their own advantages in security, convenience and easy management, The most important thing is to meet the needs of users, which is the current trend. License plate recognition makes the management of the parking lot only need to take pictures of the license plates entering and leaving the parking lot to record the information, so as to control the switch of the road gate, so as to realize the management of the parking lot. However, is the license plate recognition system really so perfect? In fact, license plate recognition system has high requirements for environment and license plate. For example, the license plate generally cannot have defects, stains, covers, etc. even for some bad license plate recognition systems, the color of the license plate or the weather will affect the recognition effect of the license plate recognition system. Therefore, for the users of the parking lot, it is very important to choose a parking lot system with good quality and stable performance. Although the license plate recognition system has its advantages, at present, with imperfect development, the license plate recognition system still cannot cancel the main position of the card taking parking lot system. Now, various industries are still using the card taking parking lot system to manage the information of incoming and outgoing vehicles. Therefore, its important position can not be ignored.
Listen to Taigewang Technology to Talk About the Application of Wechat Payment in Parking Lot_ Taige
Listen to Taigewang Technology to Talk About the Application of Wechat Payment in Parking Lot_ Taige
Wechat payment has become a trend. You can pay as long as you take out your mobile phone and scan it. Because it has the advantage of convenience and quickness, it is widely used in various places. Next, let's talk about the application of wechat payment in parking lot. It is combined with parking lot charging system to let people experience the convenience of one-stop parking. WeChat intelligent car park car park is based on official account WeChat payment, which can be used for parking inquiries, parking payment, and surrounding services, greatly improving the efficiency and service experience of the parking lot. It is understood that wechat payment has covered dozens of cities across the country, involving some communities, hospitals, commercial squares and other fields. People enter car park car park, pay attention to WeChat official account, follow the prompts to register the entry vehicles, and check the parking lot's usage at any time after registration is completed. If there are any remaining parking spaces, people will not have to worry about parking spaces. When leaving, owners can also directly query the parking location and navigation route of WeChat through the WeChat. When the vehicle is on the scene, The owner only needs to scan the QR code on the parking card and enter the payment interface to pay easily, and each parking payment record of the owner can be queried in the consumption record. In addition, one advantage of wechat payment over manual charging in ordinary parking lots is that you can enjoy discount activities through wechat payment, and you can also receive parking coupons after successful payment. This parking payment method was quickly cited by major parking places and recognized by people. In addition to solving the problems in the industry such as difficult parking, difficult car finding and difficult payment queuing, wechat smart parking solution also gives the parking industry a new parking mode, so that people don't worry about parking.
Intelligent Parking Lot - Development Process of Reverse Car Search System_ Taigewang Technology
Intelligent Parking Lot - Development Process of Reverse Car Search System_ Taigewang Technology
With the expansion of urban scale and the increase of population, large public places such as government, supermarkets, business centers, airports and hospitals have a large and dense flow of people. All kinds of public facilities are quite large in order to meet people's needs. As an important supporting facility of parking lot, the area is very large. There are many parking spaces inside, which are dense at a glance, Moreover, the direction is not easy to distinguish, and the signs of the berth area are the same. When car owners go back to the parking lot to pick up their car, they are often hindered by these difficult signs and fail to find their vehicle location. The reverse vehicle search system is born to solve this problem. In the past, when the reverse car search system was not adopted in the parking lot, the manual car search method was adopted. Because the parking lot needs to quickly help the owner find the parking position of the vehicle, it often needs to send a large number of staff to distribute it evenly in all areas of the parking lot, and then communicate with each other through handheld walkie talkies to help find the vehicle. This is a helpless move that the parking lot has to adopt without using the intelligent reverse car search system. It undoubtedly consumes manpower and increases the operation cost. Now, affected by the trend of informatization and intelligence, the parking lot has gradually introduced new intelligent technologies and equipment and changed to a more efficient management mode to guide car owners to enter the parking lot and return to the parking lot to find a car. In terms of vehicle search technology, it is mainly a new vehicle search method based on video guided vehicle search. The video guided vehicle search system will install a camera to detect the use of the parking space in each parking space, capture the image information of the parking space and vehicle, and send it to the parking lot system for data processing. When returning to the parking lot for vehicle search, you can obtain the parking position of the parking space by inputting your own license plate number in the vehicle search terminal, At the same time, the terminal intelligently calculates and provides the pick-up route. These new models have quickly entered the field of vision of parking lot managers. Video guided and ultrasonic guided car search technology has been used to replace manual car search. They have been applied by many crowded parking lots, such as large commercial squares, large chain supermarkets, large hospitals and so on. For more information about license plate recognition system, parking lot management system, parking lot charging system, parking lot gate, access gate system, cloud parking lot and other functions, please consult Shenzhen taigewang Technology Co., Ltd. for details, and the preferred partner for parking lot operators
What Are the Requirements for the Ground When Installing the Parking Lot Management System_ Taigewan
What Are the Requirements for the Ground When Installing the Parking Lot Management System_ Taigewan
What are the requirements for the ground when installing the parking lot management system? After the production and processing of the parking lot management system is completed, when we transport the equipment to the place of use, we must first consider the installation. How to ensure the stability of the parking lot management system in the use process is the primary consideration before installing the equipment. The installation of the parking lot management system has a great relationship with the external environment. First, before fixing the equipment, we should determine the location of its peripheral equipment, such as sentry box, safety island, etc. once these equipment are fixed, they cannot be changed. Similarly, the installation location of the parking lot management system can be determined only when these equipment are fixed. The installation of parking lot management system has a great relationship with the ground. Firstly, the leveling of the ground is the primary condition of fixed equipment. If our equipment is fixed on the safety island, we should ensure the leveling of the safety island ground. Only the leveling of the ground can the equipment be firmly fixed on the ground. Secondly, as an important part of the parking lot management system, the working stability of the ground induction coil directly affects the operation effect of the whole system. Therefore, the production of the ground induction coil is a very important work link in the process of engineering installation. Therefore, the following points should be considered before laying the ground induction coil: first, there should be no large amount of metal within 50 cm around, such as well cover Rainwater ditch cover plate, etc; 2、 There shall be no more than 220V power supply lines within one meter around; 3、 When making multiple coils, the distance between coils shall be greater than two meters, otherwise they will interfere with each other. Therefore, the laying of ground induction coil plays a great role in the later use of parking lot management system. In addition, the slope and width of the entrance and exit of the parking lot will bring some trouble to the installation of the parking lot system. Therefore, to ensure the stability of the parking lot management system in the later use process, we must understand the on-site use environment before installation.
The Intelligent Reverse Car Search System in the Parking Lot Helps You Find Your Car Accurately_ Tai
The Intelligent Reverse Car Search System in the Parking Lot Helps You Find Your Car Accurately_ Tai
Now with the development of economy, many people are gathering in big cities, which leads to many management pressures. The problem of difficult parking has plagued big cities for many years. In cities with an inch of land and an inch of gold, underground parking lots, ground multi-storey parking lots and other parking facilities with small area and large capacity have increasingly become the main means to alleviate the parking pressure in cities, but at the same time, With the continuous expansion of the area of the parking lot and the rapid expansion of the number of cars, the difficulty coefficient of car search for car owners is also gradually increasing. In view of this situation, many companies have developed a new generation of intelligent vehicle search system according to the intelligent parking lot system, which can be said to fundamentally solve this problem, thus comprehensively promoting the rapid development of the intelligent parking system industry. At present, since most of the in-house parking lots in China are still in the original manual management stage, there are a variety of problems. For example, after entering the parking lot, the owner cannot quickly enter the parking position to park the vehicle, and can only blindly look for parking spaces in the parking lot, which will not only occupy the resources of the main lane in and out of the parking lot, but may even cause traffic congestion in the parking lot; Secondly, when the owner returns to the parking lot to pick up the car, due to the complex space and structure in the parking lot, he cannot find the parking position in time, which not only wastes time, but also affects the customer's parking experience; In addition, the parking lot managers can not obtain the occupancy of parking spaces in the parking lot in real time, nor can they timely count the traffic flow in different periods, and can not timely make operation adjustment and optimize the allocation of parking space resources according to the actual situation, resulting in low utilization rate of the parking lot; During peak hours, managers need to send a large number of staff for manual counseling, which is inefficient and costly. However, the emergence of intelligent reverse car search system can solve such problems. The system has infrared touch LCD display, and the hardware equipment integrates voice prompt and broadcast functions; You can search the vehicle according to the license plate, parking space, time and picture on the display screen; After finding the vehicle, the system will automatically plan and display the route to pick up the vehicle; At the same time, it supports the owner user stealth function and networking with the parking management system to realize the self-service electronic payment function. It can not only improve the utilization rate of parking lots and make the rational allocation of parking resources and social needs, but also improve the service quality of parking management and enable parking operators to manage parking lots more efficiently.
The Parking Lot System Has Witnessed the Development of the Times and Promoted Economic Diversificat
The Parking Lot System Has Witnessed the Development of the Times and Promoted Economic Diversificat
Now in our life, we can see different types of parking lot systems, which represent different meanings in terms of appearance and function. Although most parking lot systems can manage vehicles in the parking lot, some parking lot systems are not so easy to use in the parking lot. Therefore, according to different functions, our subsequent selection must be determined according to the on-site needs. Generally speaking, the standard functions of the parking lot system can meet the use of different parking lots, but according to different users, we can add some non-standard functions to the original functions to ensure the use of the parking lot system in different places. At present, several modes commonly used in parking lot system, such as card swiping, Bluetooth recognition and license plate recognition, have been everywhere in our life. After decades of development, parking lot system has brought great convenience to people's parking, and its diversified functions are favored by more and more parking lot managers. The traditional manual charging mode makes the parking lot have great charging loopholes in cash management, and the current self-service payment allows the parking lot management to recover the loss of previous charging funds, increase the income of the parking lot, and make it more convenient for car owners to park through the autonomous payment mode. With the more and more extensive application of parking lot system in society, it not only provides a safe and convenient parking environment for car owners, but also makes parking lot managers more worry-free in management.
What Is Location Guidance System_ Taigewang Technology
What Is Location Guidance System_ Taigewang Technology
If you need to count the vehicles parked in the parking lot and display them on the remaining parking space display screen in real time, you can realize this function through the parking space guidance system. However, if you don't have high requirements and limited budget, you just want to realize this function, the location guidance system may be more suitable for you. The parking space guidance system is different from the location guidance. The parking space guidance system adopts ultrasonic technology or video detection technology, which can monitor the status of specific parking spaces in real time. It has a high degree of automation and is accurate and real-time, but its cost is also high. It is generally used in large parking lots and is not suitable for ordinary parking lots with low budget. The cost of the location parking space guidance system is much lower, and the principle is simple and easy to implement. It can use an ordinary vehicle detector. It needs to bury a ground sensing coil at each inlet and outlet and install a vehicle detector. When the vehicle enters and exits, the controller will add 1 and subtract 1 according to the situation detected by the detector and make statistical calculation, Publish the calculation results to the remaining parking space display screen, so that users can clearly know the current parking space status of the parking lot, such as the number of parked vehicles, the remaining parking spaces, etc. The location guidance system can operate independently or connect with the parking lot system server. As long as the vehicles enter and leave, the system will automatically count and transmit the data to the parking space display screen. The implementation principle is simple, the reliability is high and the cost is low, which can meet the display needs of the remaining parking spaces in the general parking lot. However, its disadvantage is that it can not accurately the specific parking space, can not achieve parking space guidance, and can only be regional guidance, so it can only be called Regional guidance system.
How to Solve the Problem of Losing Parking Cards_ Taigewang Technology
How to Solve the Problem of Losing Parking Cards_ Taigewang Technology
In the traditional parking card swiping system, the loss of card has always been a headache. The loss of parking card will not only cause the loss of parking revenue, but also cause payment disputes and bring difficulties to management. Recently, Huayuan parking lot encountered such problems in the process of upgrading. Huayuan parking lot was transformed into an intelligent parking lot a few months ago. Because the initial supporting facilities and functions were not perfect, the management of the early parking lot purchased 600 temporary cards to collect temporary fees for vehicles. However, 600 temporary cards were seriously lost and only used for more than 2 months, leaving few cards left. Why did this happen? The management explained that this was because some car owners were not used to using the card and took the card away inadvertently, and some people deliberately discarded or hid the parking card in order to escape the ticket. Because the parking lot management personnel are limited, it can not be recovered in such cases. We can only watch the other party drive away. Facing the continuous loss of parking cards, the parking lot administrator said he had no choice. Although the card cost is not high, the resulting income loss and management disputes are relatively serious. Finally, the parking lot management can only stop the card issuing management and adopt the unified charging management, that is, the charging method of two yuan per person. In this way, although the management is convenient, the parking revenue has lost a lot, and the parking lot operation has fallen into the edge of loss. Facing this situation, how can we solve the problem of card loss? As long as the card is used, it will be lost, which can not be avoided. However, there is a way to solve this problem, that is, no card management. The card free parking management system is one of the schemes. The card free parking system adopts the vehicle identification technology. The system will automatically identify and record the vehicles entering and leaving the site. The vehicles do not need to park or swipe their cards. The management is simple and convenient. It eliminates the work of card management, let alone worry about the loss of cards. It is a very popular parking management scheme in the market. At present, some large shopping malls, such as Wanda Plaza, use this card free parking management system. If you need this, please contact us taigewang. We can provide you with specific scheme information for your reference free of charge.
How Does the Parking Lot Management System Maximize the Benefits of the Parking Lot_ Taigewang Techn
How Does the Parking Lot Management System Maximize the Benefits of the Parking Lot_ Taigewang Techn
Research shows that in some large parking lots, one third of people turn around in the parking lot because they can't find the parking place in time, and some people leave the parking lot because they can't find spare parking space, which greatly wastes the parking time of car owners and reduces the income of the parking lot. The use of parking lot management system in the parking lot, Make people parking more convenient and parking lot management more convenient. Profit is always the source of enterprise development and attention. If the parking lot can not add some benefits to people, no one may spend so much cost to build the parking lot, and will not care about people's parking problems. Therefore, how to improve the profitability of the parking lot and make it more convenient for people to park is the main content concerned by the manufacturers of the parking lot management system. When a parking lot is relatively large and there are many parking spaces, the parking lot management personnel may not have so much energy to dredge every vehicle entering and leaving the parking lot. Because the owner can't see the location of the spare parking space at the first time, changing around in the parking lot will affect the passage of other vehicles, cause vehicle congestion, and affect the mood of the owner, Sometimes I can't find a parking space after turning for a long time, and finally I have to leave the parking lot. This will not only leave a bad impression on car owners, but also reduce the income of the parking lot. With the development of technology, parking lot management system makes it easy for people to park. Each function of parking lot management system guides people to complete the whole parking process, so as to comprehensively improve the income of parking lot.
Cloud Parking Lot Will Be the Development Trend of Parking Lot in the Future_ Taigewang Technology
Cloud Parking Lot Will Be the Development Trend of Parking Lot in the Future_ Taigewang Technology
With the development of technology, the original manual charging of import and export vehicles in the parking lot is slowly transformed into IC card swiping, ID card swiping charging, intelligent parking lot system and license plate recognition intelligent parking lot charging system. More and more car owners prefer this card free intelligent parking lot system. Recently, the concept of cloud parking lot has been introduced on the basis of intelligent parking lot charging system. What is cloud parking lot? Cloud technology is a macro technology. The application of cloud technology to intelligent parking lot management system, the promotion of networking and the introduction of cloud concept have a great impact on parking lots. The concept of cloud monitoring and cloud security has long been put forward and developed to the ground, but it has not been realized in the application of the parking lot for a long time. The system can break through the regional restrictions, realize the remote management all over the country, improve the work efficiency, and reduce the problems caused by the investment of human and material resources and the secondary consolidated report, which is also the main reason for the delay of the cloud parking lot, Therefore, when the network becomes the standard transmission means of the parking lot, the cloud of the parking lot has the foundation for implementation. The emergence of cloud parking lot can change the cloud license plate recognition and transportation equipment status cloud monitoring through the cloud platform, so as to ensure the security and uniqueness of the data. When the customer breaks the data and has problems, the data will never be lost, reducing the customer's investment and maintenance of the server. The system can support group authority management and control, customize the authority of the customer's account, query the use of parking spaces in various places in real time, provide accurate information of remaining parking spaces for toll parking lots, improve the utilization rate of parking spaces and increase the income of parking lots. The application of cloud parking card cloud service operation platform in intelligent parking lot can realize cloud license plate recognition, remote monitoring of parking lot equipment status, cloud unified report, cloud storage, cloud video and other functions. Therefore, in view of these functions, cloud parking will be a trend in the development of intelligent parking.
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