Knowledge About Logical Access Control

1. By country of logical access control

Governments of countries which comment on net neutrality usually support the concept.

United StatesNet neutrality in the United States has been a point of conflict between network users and service providers since the 1990s. Much of the conflict over net neutrality arises from how Internet services are classified by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) under authority of the Communications Act of 1934. The FCC would have significant ability to regulate ISPs should Internet services be treated as a Title II "common carrier service", or otherwise the ISPs would be mostly unrestricted by the FCC if Internet services fell under Title I "information services". In 2009, the United States Congress passed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act 2009, which granted a stimulus of $2.88 billion for extending broadband services into certain areas of the United States. It was intended to make the internet more accessible for under-served areas, and aspects of net neutrality and open access were written into the grant. However, the bill never set any significant precedents for net neutrality or influenced future legislation relating to net neutrality. Through 2017, the FCC has generally been favorable towards net neutrality, treating ISPs under Title II common carrier. With the onset of the Presidency of Donald Trump in 2017, and the appointment of Ajit Pai, an opponent of net neutrality, to the chairman of the FCC, the FCC has reversed many previous net neutrality rulings, and reclassified Internet services as Title I information services. The FCC's decisions have been a matter of several ongoing legal challenges by both states supporting net neutrality, and ISPs challenging it. The United States Congress has attempted to pass legislation supporting net neutrality but have failed to gain sufficient support. In 2018, a bill cleared the U.S. Senate, with Republicans Lisa Murkowski, John Kennedy and Susan Collins joining all 49 Democrats but the House majority denied the bill a hearing. Individual states have been trying to pass legislation to make net neutrality a requirement within their state, overriding the FCC's decision. California has successfully passed its own net neutrality act, which the United States Department of Justice is challenging on a legal basis.

CanadaNet neutrality in Canada is a debated issue in that nation, but not to the degree of partisanship in other nations such as the United States in part because of its federal regulatory structure and pre-existing supportive laws that were enacted decades before the debate arose. In Canada, Internet service providers (ISPs) generally provide Internet service in a neutral manner. Some notable incidents otherwise have included Bell Canada's throttling of certain protocols and Telus's censorship of a specific website critical of the company. In the case with Bell Canada, the debate for net neutrality became a more popular topic when it was revealed that they were throttling traffic by limiting people's accessibility to view Canada's Next Great Prime Minister, which eventually led to the Canadian Association of Internet Providers (CAIP) demanding the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) to take action on preventing the throttling of third-party traffic. In October 22, 2009, the CRTC issued a ruling about internet traffic management, which favored adopting guidelines that were suggested by interest groups such as OpenMedia.ca and the Open Internet Coalition. However, the guidelines set in place require citizens to file formal complaints proving that their internet traffic is being throttled, and as a result, some ISPs still continue to throttle internet traffic of its users.

IndiaIn the year 2018, the Indian Government unanimously approved new regulations supporting net neutrality. The regulations are considered to be the "world's strongest" net neutrality rules, guaranteeing free and open Internet for nearly half a billion people, and are expected to help the culture of startups and innovation. The only exceptions to the rules are new and emerging services like autonomous driving and tele-medicine, which may require prioritised internet lanes and faster than normal speeds.

ChinaNet Neutrality in China is not enforced, and ISPs in China play important roles in regulating the content that is available domestically on the internet. There are several ISPs filtering and blocking content at the national level, preventing domestic internet users from accessing certain sites or services or foreign internet users from gaining access to domestic web content. This filtering technology is referred to as the Great Firewall, or GFW. In a journal analyzing the political climate behind net neutrality in China, Henry Hu concluded that Chinese ISPs have become a political tool for the country to heavily regulate information rather than providing neutral internet content for its users. In contrast to countries such as the United States, values such as equality and free speech are not considered in the net neutrality debate.

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2. Issues of logical access control

Discrimination by protocolDiscrimination by protocol is the favouring or blocking information based on aspects of the communications protocol that the computers are using to communicate. In the US, a complaint was filed with the Federal Communications Commission against the cable provider Comcast alleging they had illegally inhibited users of its high-speed Internet service from using the popular file-sharing software BitTorrent. Comcast admitted no wrongdoing in its proposed settlement of up to US$16 dollars per share in December 2009. However, a U.S. appeals court ruled in April 2010 that the FCC exceeded its authority when it sanctioned Comcast in 2008 for deliberately preventing some subscribers from using peer-to-peer file-sharing services to download large files. However, the FCC spokeswoman Jen Howard responded, "the court in no way disagreed with the importance of preserving a free and open Internet, nor did it close the door to other methods for achieving this important end". Despite the ruling in favour of Comcast, a study by Measurement Lab in October 2011 verified that Comcast had virtually stopped its BitTorrent throttling practices.

Discrimination by IP addressDuring the 1990s, creating a non-neutral Internet was technically infeasible. Originally developed to filter harmful malware, the Internet security company NetScreen Technologies released network firewalls in 2003 with so-called deep packet inspection capabilities. Deep packet inspection helped make real-time discrimination between different kinds of data possible, and is often used for Internet censorship. In a practice called zero-rating, companies will not invoice data use related to certain IP addresses, favoring use of those services. Examples include Facebook Zero, Wikipedia Zero, and Google Free Zone. These zero-rating practices are especially common in the developing world.

Sometimes Internet Service Providers (ISPs) will charge some companies, but not others, for the traffic they cause on the ISP's network. French telecom operator Orange, complaining that traffic from YouTube and other Google sites consist of roughly 50% of total traffic on the Orange network, made a deal with Google, in which they charge Google for the traffic incurred on the Orange network. Some also thought that Orange's rival ISP Free throttled YouTube traffic. However, an investigation done by the French telecommunications regulatory body revealed that the network was simply congested during peak hours.

Aside from the zero-rating method, ISPs will also use certain strategies to reduce costs of pricing plans such as the use of sponsored data. In a scenario where a sponsored data plan is used, a third-party will step in and pay for all the content that it (or the carrier or consumer) does not want around. This is generally used as a way for ISP's to remove out-of-pocket costs from subscribers.

One of the criticisms regarding discrimination is that the system set up by ISPs for this purpose is capable of not only discriminating but also scrutinizing full-packet content of communications. For instance, the deep packet inspection technology installs intelligence within the lower layers in the work to discover and identify the source, type, and destination of packets, revealing information about packets traveling in the physical infrastructure so it can dictate the quality of transport such packet will receive. This is seen as an architecture of surveillance, one that can be shared with intelligence agencies, copyrighted content owners, and civil litigants, exposing the users' secrets in the process.

Favoring private networksProponents of net neutrality argue that without new regulations, Internet service providers would be able to profit from and favor their own private protocols over others. ISPs are able to encourage the use of specific services by using private networks to discriminate what data is counted against bandwidth caps. For example, Comcast struck a deal with Microsoft that allowed users to stream television through the Xfinity app on their Xbox 360s without it affecting their bandwidth limit. However, utilizing other television streaming apps, such as Netflix, HBO Go, and Hulu, counted towards the limit. Comcast denied that this infringed on net neutrality principles since "it runs its Xfinity for Xbox service on its own, private Internet protocol network". In 2009, when AT&T was bundling iPhone 3G with its 3G network service, the company placed restrictions on which iPhone applications could run on its network. According to proponents of net neutrality, this capitalization on which content producers ISPs can favor would ultimately lead to fragmentation, where some ISPs would have certain content that is not necessarily present in the networks offered by other ISPs. The danger behind fragmentation, as viewed by proponents of net neutrality, is the concept that there could be "multiple 'Internets,'" where some ISPs offer exclusive internet applications or services or make it more difficult to gain access internet content that may be more easily viewable through other internet service providers. An example of a fragmented service would be television, where some cable providers offer exclusive media from certain content providers. However, in theory, allowing ISPs to favor certain content and private networks would overall improve internet services since they would be able to recognize packets of information that are more time-sensitive and prioritize that over packets that are not as sensitive to latency. The issue, as explained by Robin S. Lee and Tim Wu, is that there are literally too many ISPs and internet content providers around the world to reach an agreement on how to standardize that prioritization. A proposed solution would be to allow all online content to be accessed and transferred freely, while simultaneously offering a "fast lane" for a preferred service that does not discriminate on the content provider.

Peering discriminationThere is disagreement about whether peering is a net neutrality issue. In the first quarter of 2014, streaming website Netflix reached an arrangement with ISP Comcast to improve the quality of its service to Netflix clients. This arrangement was made in response to increasingly slow connection speeds through Comcast over the course of 2013, where average speeds dropped by over 25% of their values a year before to an all-time low. After the deal was struck in January 2014, the Netflix speed index recorded a 66% increase in connection. Netflix agreed to a similar deal with Verizon in 2014, after Verizon DSL customers' connection speed dropped to less than 1 Mbit/s early in the year. Netflix spoke out against this deal with a controversial statement delivered to all Verizon customers experiencing low connection speeds, using the Netflix client. This sparked an internal debate between the two companies that led to Verizon's obtaining a cease and desist order on 5 June 2014 that forced Netflix to stop displaying this message.

Favoring fast-loading websitesPro-net neutrality arguments have also noted that regulations are also necessary due to research that has shown low-tolerance to slow-loading content providers. In a 2009 research study conducted by Forrester Research, online shoppers expected the web pages they visited to download content instantly. When a page fails to load at the expected speed, many of them simply click out. A study found that even a one-second delay could lead to "11% fewer page views, a 16% decrease in customer satisfaction, and 7% loss in conversions". This delay can cause a severe problem to small innovators who have created new technology. If a website is slow by default, the general public will lose interest and favor a website that runs faster. This helps large corporate companies maintain power because they have the means to fund faster Internet speeds. On the other hand, smaller competitors have less financial capabilities making it harder for them to succeed in the online world.

Knowledge About Logical Access Control 1

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Understand Logical Access Control
Understand Logical Access Control
An Introduction to logical access controlNetwork neutrality, most commonly called net neutrality, is the principle that Internet service providers (ISPs) must treat all Internet communications equally, and not discriminate or charge differently based on user, content, website, platform, application, type of equipment, source address, destination address, or method of communication.With net neutrality, ISPs may not intentionally block, slow down, or charge money for specific online content. Without net neutrality, ISPs may prioritize certain types of traffic, meter others, or potentially block traffic from specific services, while charging consumers for various tiers of service.The term was coined by Columbia University media law professor Tim Wu in 2003, as an extension of the longstanding concept of a common carrier, which was used to describe the role of telephone systems. Net neutrality regulations may be referred to as "common carrier" regulations. Net neutrality does not block all abilities that Internet service providers have to impact their customers' services. Opt-in/opt-out services exist on the end user side, and filtering can be done on a local basis, as in the filtration of sensitive material for minors.Research suggests that a combination of policy instruments will help realize the range of valued political and economic objectives central to the network neutrality debate. Combined with strong public opinion, this has led some governments to regulate broadband Internet services as a public utility, similar to the way electricity, gas, and the water supply are regulated, along with limiting providers and regulating the options those providers can offer.Proponents of net neutrality, which include computer science experts, consumer advocates, human rights organizations, and Internet content providers claim that net neutrality helps to provide freedom of information exchange, promotes competition and innovation for Internet services, and upholds standardization of Internet data transmission which was essential for its growth. Opponents of net neutrality, which include ISPs, and telecom equipment manufacturers, assert that net neutrality requirements would reduce their incentive to build out the Internet, reduces competition in the marketplace, and may raise their operating costs which they would have to pass along to their users.Net neutrality is administered on a national or regional basis, though much of the world's focus has been on the conflict over net neutrality in the United States. Net neutrality in the US has been a topic since the early 1990s, as they were one of the world leaders in online service providing. In 2019, the Save the Internet Act to "guarantee broadband internet users equal access to online content" was passed by the United States House of Representatives but not by the US Senate. However, they face the same problems as the rest of the world. Finding an appropriate solution to creating more regulation for Internet Service Providers has been a major work in progress.Legal aspects of logical access controlLegal enforcement of net neutrality principles takes a variety of forms, from provisions that outlaw anti-competitive blocking and "throttling" of Internet services, all the way to legal enforcement that prevents companies from subsidizing Internet use on particular sites. Contrary to popular rhetoric and statements by various individuals involved in the ongoing academic debate, research suggests that a single policy instrument (such as a no-blocking policy or a quality of service tiering policy) cannot achieve the range of valued political and economic objectives central to the debate. As Bauer and Obar suggest, "safeguarding multiple goals requires a combination of instruments that will likely involve government and nongovernment measures. Furthermore, promoting goals such as the freedom of speech, political participation, investment, and innovation calls for complementary policies."Issues of logical access controlDiscrimination by protocolDiscrimination by protocol is the favouring or blocking information based on aspects of the communications protocol that the computers are using to communicate. In the US, a complaint was filed with the Federal Communications Commission against the cable provider Comcast alleging they had illegally inhibited users of its high-speed Internet service from using the popular file-sharing software BitTorrent. Comcast admitted no wrongdoing in its proposed settlement of up to US$16 dollars per share in December 2009. However, a U.S. appeals court ruled in April 2010 that the FCC exceeded its authority when it sanctioned Comcast in 2008 for deliberately preventing some subscribers from using peer-to-peer file-sharing services to download large files. However, the FCC spokeswoman Jen Howard responded, "the court in no way disagreed with the importance of preserving a free and open Internet, nor did it close the door to other methods for achieving this important end". Despite the ruling in favour of Comcast, a study by Measurement Lab in October 2011 verified that Comcast had virtually stopped its BitTorrent throttling practices.Discrimination by IP addressDuring the 1990s, creating a non-neutral Internet was technically infeasible. Originally developed to filter harmful malware, the Internet security company NetScreen Technologies released network firewalls in 2003 with so-called deep packet inspection capabilities. Deep packet inspection helped make real-time discrimination between different kinds of data possible, and is often used for Internet censorship. In a practice called zero-rating, companies will not invoice data use related to certain IP addresses, favoring use of those services. Examples include Facebook Zero, Wikipedia Zero, and Google Free Zone. These zero-rating practices are especially common in the developing world.Sometimes Internet Service Providers (ISPs) will charge some companies, but not others, for the traffic they cause on the ISP's network. French telecom operator Orange, complaining that traffic from YouTube and other Google sites consist of roughly 50% of total traffic on the Orange network, made a deal with Google, in which they charge Google for the traffic incurred on the Orange network. Some also thought that Orange's rival ISP Free throttled YouTube traffic. However, an investigation done by the French telecommunications regulatory body revealed that the network was simply congested during peak hours.Aside from the zero-rating method, ISPs will also use certain strategies to reduce costs of pricing plans such as the use of sponsored data. In a scenario where a sponsored data plan is used, a third-party will step in and pay for all the content that it (or the carrier or consumer) does not want around. This is generally used as a way for ISP's to remove out-of-pocket costs from subscribers.One of the criticisms regarding discrimination is that the system set up by ISPs for this purpose is capable of not only discriminating but also scrutinizing full-packet content of communications. For instance, the deep packet inspection technology installs intelligence within the lower layers in the work to discover and identify the source, type, and destination of packets, revealing information about packets traveling in the physical infrastructure so it can dictate the quality of transport such packet will receive. This is seen as an architecture of surveillance, one that can be shared with intelligence agencies, copyrighted content owners, and civil litigants, exposing the users' secrets in the process.Favoring private networksProponents of net neutrality argue that without new regulations, Internet service providers would be able to profit from and favor their own private protocols over others. ISPs are able to encourage the use of specific services by using private networks to discriminate what data is counted against bandwidth caps. For example, Comcast struck a deal with Microsoft that allowed users to stream television through the Xfinity app on their Xbox 360s without it affecting their bandwidth limit. However, utilizing other television streaming apps, such as Netflix, HBO Go, and Hulu, counted towards the limit. Comcast denied that this infringed on net neutrality principles since "it runs its Xfinity for Xbox service on its own, private Internet protocol network". In 2009, when AT&T was bundling iPhone 3G with its 3G network service, the company placed restrictions on which iPhone applications could run on its network. According to proponents of net neutrality, this capitalization on which content producers ISPs can favor would ultimately lead to fragmentation, where some ISPs would have certain content that is not necessarily present in the networks offered by other ISPs. The danger behind fragmentation, as viewed by proponents of net neutrality, is the concept that there could be "multiple 'Internets,'" where some ISPs offer exclusive internet applications or services or make it more difficult to gain access internet content that may be more easily viewable through other internet service providers. An example of a fragmented service would be television, where some cable providers offer exclusive media from certain content providers. However, in theory, allowing ISPs to favor certain content and private networks would overall improve internet services since they would be able to recognize packets of information that are more time-sensitive and prioritize that over packets that are not as sensitive to latency. The issue, as explained by Robin S. Lee and Tim Wu, is that there are literally too many ISPs and internet content providers around the world to reach an agreement on how to standardize that prioritization. A proposed solution would be to allow all online content to be accessed and transferred freely, while simultaneously offering a "fast lane" for a preferred service that does not discriminate on the content provider.Peering discriminationThere is disagreement about whether peering is a net neutrality issue. In the first quarter of 2014, streaming website Netflix reached an arrangement with ISP Comcast to improve the quality of its service to Netflix clients. This arrangement was made in response to increasingly slow connection speeds through Comcast over the course of 2013, where average speeds dropped by over 25% of their values a year before to an all-time low. After the deal was struck in January 2014, the Netflix speed index recorded a 66% increase in connection. Netflix agreed to a similar deal with Verizon in 2014, after Verizon DSL customers' connection speed dropped to less than 1 Mbit/s early in the year. Netflix spoke out against this deal with a controversial statement delivered to all Verizon customers experiencing low connection speeds, using the Netflix client. This sparked an internal debate between the two companies that led to Verizon's obtaining a cease and desist order on 5 June 2014 that forced Netflix to stop displaying this message.Favoring fast-loading websitesPro-net neutrality arguments have also noted that regulations are also necessary due to research that has shown low-tolerance to slow-loading content providers. In a 2009 research study conducted by Forrester Research, online shoppers expected the web pages they visited to download content instantly. When a page fails to load at the expected speed, many of them simply click out. A study found that even a one-second delay could lead to "11% fewer page views, a 16% decrease in customer satisfaction, and 7% loss in conversions". This delay can cause a severe problem to small innovators who have created new technology. If a website is slow by default, the general public will lose interest and favor a website that runs faster. This helps large corporate companies maintain power because they have the means to fund faster Internet speeds. On the other hand, smaller competitors have less financial capabilities making it harder for them to succeed in the online world.
Things You May Want to Know About Logical Access Control
Things You May Want to Know About Logical Access Control
An overview of logical access controlFort Saint Anthony (Portuguese: Forte de Santo Antnio; Dutch: Fort Sint Anthony) was a fort built by the Portuguese in 1515 near the town of Axim, in what is now Ghana. In 1642, the Dutch captured the fort and subsequently made it part of the Dutch Gold Coast. The Dutch expanded the fort considerably before they turned it over, with the rest of their colony, to the British in 1872. The fort is now the property of the Ghanaian state and is open to the public.As the westernmost fort of the Dutch possessions, Fort Saint Anthony was the first fort encountered by Dutch traders, and the place where provisions and fresh water were taken in. Fort Saint Anthony remained an important fort in the Dutch possessions, with its commandant serving as senior commissioner (Dutch: oppercommies) in the Colonial Council in Elmina, together with the commandant of Fort Nassau at Moree, the commandant of Fort Crvecoeur at Accra, and the commandant of the factory at Ouidah, on the Dutch Slave Coast. In contrast to many other Dutch possessions on the Gold Coast, Fort Saint Anthony was never abandoned during the 19th century, and remained occupied until 1872.3D Model of logical access controlIn 2013, the Zamani Project documented Fort Saint Anthony with terrestrial 3D laser scanning . The non-profit research group from the University of Cape town (South Africa) specialises in 3D digital documentation of tangible cultural heritage. The data generated by the Zamani Project creates a permanent record that can be used for research, education, restoration, and conservation. A 3D model, panorama tour and plans of Fort Saint Anthony are available on www.zamaniproject.orgHistory of logical access controlDue to a lack of study of the Portuguese archives of the sixteenth century, little is known about the early years of Fort Saint Anthony and about the reason for the Portuguese to settle themselves at Axim, although a desire to control the gold trade in the area seems a logical motivation. The first evidence of Portuguese involvement near Axim is a letter from the governor of Elmina to the King of Portugal from 1503, to send construction materials to captain Diogo d'Alvarenga, who was in charge of the construction of the "House of Axem." After this house was destructed by local peoples, the Portuguese constructed a new post slightly more to the east, probably on the site on which the current Fort Saint Anthony still stands.In contrast to the other forts on the Gold Coast, the authority of the commander of fort Saint Anthony reached far beyond the fort and the town of Axim. In the Treaty of Axim that the Netherlands signed in 1642 with local peoples after their conquest of Saint Anthony from the Portuguese in the same year, they claim joint jurisdiction over a number of settlements surrounding Axim, pretending to have inherited this jurisdiction from the Portuguese. Moreover, in November 1656, at the request of Director-General Jan Valckenburgh, a declaration was signed by representatives of Gyommre, "Abripiquem," Ankobra, Ebokro, Axim and "Encasser," in which they declared to have been allies since time immemorial, and to always have put their disputes in front of the commandant of Fort Saint Anthony at Axim.The large area of jurisdiction is thought to be the result of Portuguese attempts in the early 17th century to restore their dominance in the gold tradewhich in recent years had been taken over by the Dutchby directly accessing the sources of the gold trade in the interior. In 1623, the Portuguese founded a fortified outpost on the Ankobra River, some 20 kilometres from Axim, near the present-day village of Bamianko, from which they established a gold mine on Aboasi Hill, some eight kilometres from this outpost. After the Dutch conquered Axim, they took over the Portuguese attempt to control the gold trade in the interior. However, the fort that they built for this purpose on the Ankobra River, Fort Ruychaver, was blown up by its commandant only five years after its construction, after a conflict with local people.After the Dutch West India Company lost its monopoly on the slave trade in 1730, it tried to develop cotton plantations at Axim.The commandant of Fort Saint Anthony continued to have some legal jurisdiction over the mentioned indigenous states well into the 19th century. When in the late 1850s the Dutch reformed their possessions on the Gold Coast into districts and instructed their fort commandantsnow referred to as "residents"to make reports of the peoples under its jurisdiction, the resident of Fort Saint Anthony, Julius Vitringa Coulon, indeed drew a map which displays a jurisdiction similar to the one proclaimed by Valckenburgh.
Understand Logical Access Control
Understand Logical Access Control
An overview of logical access control"The Will to Believe" is a lecture by William James, first published in 1896, which defends, in certain cases, the adoption of a belief without prior evidence of its truth. In particular, James is concerned in this lecture about defending the rationality of religious faith even lacking sufficient evidence of religious truth. James states in his introduction: "I have brought with me tonight [...] an essay in justification of faith, a defense of our right to adopt a believing attitude in religious matters, in spite of the fact that our merely logical intellect may not have been coerced. 'The Will to Believe,' accordingly, is the title of my paper."James' central argument in "The Will to Believe" hinges on the idea that access to the evidence for whether or not certain beliefs are true depends crucially upon first adopting those beliefs without evidence. As an example, James argues that it can be rational to have unsupported faith in one's own ability to accomplish tasks that require confidence. Importantly, James points out that this is the case even for pursuing scientific inquiry. James then argues that like belief in one's own ability to accomplish a difficult task, religious faith can also be rational even if one at the time lacks evidence for the truth of one's religious belief.The doctrine of logical access controlThe doctrine James argues for in "The Will to Believe" appears often in both his earlier and later work. James himself changed the name of the doctrine several times. First appearing as "the duty to believe", then "the subjective method", then "the will to believe", it was finally recast by James as "the right to believe". Whatever the name, the doctrine always concerned the rationality of believing without evidence in certain instances. Specifically, James is defending the violation of evidentialism in two instances:Hypothesis venturing (see hypothetico-deductivism) beliefs whose evidence becomes available only after they are believedSelf-fulfilling beliefs beliefs that by existing make themselves true.After arguing that for hypothesis venturing and with self-fulfilling beliefs a person is rational to believe without evidence, James argues that a belief in a number of philosophical topics qualifies as one or other of his two allowed violations of evidentialism (e.g. free will, God, and immortality). The reason James takes himself as able to rationally justify positions often not believed to be verifiable under any method, is how important he thinks believing something can be for the verifying of that belief. That is to say, in these cases James is arguing that the reason evidence for a belief seems to be unavailable to us is because the evidence for its truth or falsity comes only after it is believed rather than before. For example, in the following passage James utilizes his doctrine to justify a belief that "this is a moral world":It cannot then be said that the question, "Is this a moral world?" is a meaningless and unverifiable question because it deals with something non-phenomenal. Any question is full of meaning to which, as here, contrary answers lead to contrary behavior. And it seems as if in answering such a question as this we might proceed exactly as does the physical philosopher in testing an hypothesis. [...] So here: the verification of the theory which you may hold as to the objectively moral character of the world can consist only in thisthat if you proceed to act upon your theory it will be reversed by nothing that later turns up as your action's fruits; it will harmonize so well with the entire drift of experience that the latter will, as it were, adopt it. [...] If this be an objectively moral universe, all acts that I make on that assumption, all expectations that I ground on it, will tend more and more completely to interdigitate with the phenomena already existing. [...] While if it be not such a moral universe, and I mistakenly assume that it is, the course of experience will throw ever new impediments in the way of my belief, and become more and more difficult to express in its language. Epicycle upon epicycle of subsidiary hypothesis will have to be invoked to give to the discrepant terms a temporary appearance of squaring with each other; but at last even this resource will fail. (William James, "The Sentiment of Rationality")The doctrine James developed in his "The Will to Believe" lecture was later extended by his protg F.C.S. Schiller in his lengthy essay "Axioms as Postulates". In this work, Schiller downplays the connection between James' doctrine and religious positions like God and immortality. Instead, Schiller stresses the doctrine's ability to justify our beliefs in the uniformity of nature, causality, space, time, and other philosophic doctrines that have generally been considered to be empirically unverifiable.Criticism of logical access controlJames' doctrine has taken a lot of criticism. In 1907 University of Michigan Professor Alfred Henry Lloyd published "The Will to Doubt" in response, claiming that doubt was essential to true belief.C.S. Peirce ends his 1908 paper "A Neglected Argument for the Reality of God" complaining generally about what other philosophers had done with pragmatism, and ends with a criticism specifically of James' will to believe:It seems to me a pity they [pragmatists like James, Schiller] should allow a philosophy so instinct with life to become infected with seeds of death in such notions as that of the unreality of all ideas of infinity and that of the mutability of truth, and in such confusions of thought as that of active willing (willing to control thought, to doubt, and to weigh reasons) with willing not to exert the will (willing to believe).Bertrand Russell in "Free Thought and Official Propaganda" argued that one must always adhere to fallibilism, recognizing of all human knowledge that "None of our beliefs are quite true; all have at least a penumbra of vagueness and error", and that the only means of progressing ever-closer to the truth is to never assume certainty, but always examine all sides and try to reach a conclusion objectively.Walter Kaufmann wrote:Instead of admitting that some traditional beliefs are comforting, James argued that "the risk of being in error is a very small matter when compared with the blessing of real knowledge", and implied that those who did not accept religious beliefs were cowards, afraid of risking anything: "It is like a general informing soldiers that it is better to keep out of battle forever than to risk a single wound" (Section VII).James' appeal depends entirely on blurring the distinction between those who hold out for 100 percent proof in a matter in which any reasonable person rests content with, let us say, 90 percent, and those who refuse to indulge in a belief which is supported only by the argument that after all it could conceivably be true.Some specific objections to James' doctrine include:the necessity of positing a hypothesis without personally adopting it as a beliefthe epistemological problems of belief voluntarismsuccess in the world verifies a belief, rather than restricting verification to predictive successthe separation of belief adoption from truth and epistemic justificationJames addresses objection (1) in a footnote of his "The Will to Believe" essay where he argues that for a chemist to devote years of his life to verifying a hypothesis, the chemist must also believe his hypothesis. However, the chemist adopting a hypothesis to guide years of study is certainly only a special case of hypothesis adoption. A more general defense of (1) could also be constructed from James' behaviorist theory of belief. James takes believing a proposition to consist in acting as if it were true, so if James considers testing a proposition as acting as if it were true to see if it leads to successful action, then James would be committed to seeing an act of hypothesis adoption as necessarily an act of belief adoption as well.Objection (2) seems to presuppose the ability to will a belief. James believed that when evidence was insufficient to determine the truth or falsehood of a proposition, this uncertainty allowed a person to be able to will a belief by acting as if that belief were true. Objection (2) warrants further discussion over "voluntarism".Objection (3) strikes at James' pragmatic theory of truth, which his will to believe doctrine seems to presume. James' main defense of his theory of truth is his claim that no other account of "truth" or "correspondence" or "agreement with reality" can be given except for the pragmatist account. James sees traditional accounts of truth as explaining one mysterious term ("truth") with nothing more than equally mysterious terms (e.g. "correspondence"). The only sense James believes we can make of the concept of "truth" is if we count as true the beliefs that lead us to perform actions that "agree" with the world. Those that fit with the world will lead to successful action, those that do not agree with the world will entail actions that lead to failure (e.g. if one believes he can fly, he'll jump off a building). With truth analyzed in this way, James sees no reason to restrict success to predictive success (objection (3)) and is fully comfortable with the fact that certain beliefs will lead one person to success in the world while failing someone else (objection (4)). However, this reply to both objections is not open to James since he explicitly claims that his will to believe doctrine does not depend on his pragmatist theory of truth.
Introduction to Logical Access Control
Introduction to Logical Access Control
1. Anil Nerode of logical access controlAnil Nerode (born 1932) is an American mathematician. He received his undergraduate education and a Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Chicago, the latter under the directions of Saunders Mac Lane. He enrolled in the Hutchins College at the University of Chicago in 1947 at the age of 15, and received his Ph.D. in 1956. His Ph.D. thesis was on an algebraic abstract formulation of substitution in many-sorted free algebras and its relation to equational definitions of the partial recursive functions.While in graduate school, beginning in 1954, he worked at Professor Walter Bartky's Institute for Air Weapons Research, which did classified work for the US Air Force. He continued to work there following the completion of his Ph.D., from 1956 to 1957. In the summer of 1957 he attended the Cornell NSF Summer 1957 Institute in Logic. In 1958 to 1959 he went to the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, where he worked with Kurt Gdel. He also did post-graduate work at University of California, Berkeley.When in 1959 he got an unsolicited offer of a faculty position at Cornell University, he accepted, in part because on his previous visit to the campus he had thought "it was the prettiest place I'd ever seen". Nerode is Goldwin Smith Professor of Mathematics at Cornell, having been named to that chair in 1991. His interests are in mathematical logic, the theory of automata, computability and complexity theory, the calculus of variations, and distributed systems. With John Myhill, Nerode proved the MyhillNerode theorem specifying necessary and sufficient conditions for a formal language to be regular.The academic year 201920 saw Nerode's 60th year as an active faculty member at Cornell, which the university said was its longest such tenure ever.Nerode is an Editorial Board member of the journals Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, Mathematical and Computer Modelling, Documenta Mathematica and others.In 2012 he became a fellow of the American Mathematical Society.------2. Publications of logical access controlHolland authored a number of books about complex adaptive systems, including:Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems (1975, MIT Press)Hidden Order: How Adaptation Builds Complexity (1995, Basic Books)Emergence: From Chaos to Order (1998, Basic Books)Signals and Boundaries: Building Blocks for Complex Adaptive Systems (2012, MIT Press)Complexity: A Very Short Introduction (2014, Oxford University Press)Articles, a selection:"A universal computer capable of executing an arbitrary number of subprograms simultaneously", in: Proc. Eastern Joint Comp. Conf. (1959), pp.108112"Iterative circuit computers", in: Proc. Western Joint Comp. Conf. (1960), pp.259265"Outline for a logical theory of adaptive systems", in: JACM, Vol 9 (1962), no. 3, pp.279314"Hierarchical descriptions, universal spaces, and adaptive systems", in: Arthur W. Burks, editor. Essays on Cellular Automata (1970). University of Illinois Press"Using Classifier Systems to Study Adaptive Nonlinear Networks", in: Daniel L. Stein, editor. Lectures in the Sciences of Complexity (1989). Addison Wesley"Concerning the Emergence of Tag-Mediated Lookahead in Classifier Systems", in: Stephanie Forrest, editor. Emergent Computation: self-organizing, collective, and cooperative phenomena in natural and computing networks (1990). MIT Press"The Royal Road for Genetic Algorithms: Fitness Landscapes and GA Performance", in: Francisco J. Varela, Paul Bourgine, editors. Toward a Practice of Autonomous Systems: proceedings of the first European conference on Artificial Life (1992). MIT Press"Echoing Emergence: objectives, rough definitions, and speculations for ECHO-class models", in: George A. Cowan, David Pines, David Meltzer, editors. Complexity: metaphors, models, and reality (1994), Addison-Wesley"Can There Be A Unified Theory of Complex Adaptive Systems?", in: Harold J. Morowitz, Jerome L. Singer, editors. The Mind, The Brain, and Complex Adaptive Systems (1995). Addison-Wesley"Board Games", in: John Brockman, editor. The Greatest Inventions of the Past 2000 Years (2000). Phoenix"What is to Come and How to Predict It.", in: John Brockman, editor. The Next Fifty Years: science in the first half of the twenty-first century (2002). Weidenfeld & Nicolson------3. Major ideas of logical access controlThe imagination of reason or systematic imagination in philosophy. This, in Unger's thinking, is a basic tool in any philosophical enquiry into the world of being into reality beyond experience. Speaking of the latter, Unger writes: "The matter of the world as a whole is not an empirical object, although it is unquestionable real" ('The Living and the Divine' Ch.1). In this essay Unger explains how, in order to apprehend that reality and other, like concepts, such as being or consciousness, we require the imagination of reason. Not unlike astronomers who research heavenly constellations of which they have only a partial direct experience and who then need to complement their experience by using a reasoning imagination to access the aspect that is beyond their direct experience.Myth. The imagination of reason is also in evidence in Unger's views on the function of myth in religion. His book, 'Wirklichkeit, Mythos, Erkenntnis' ('Reality, Myth and Cognition') is an early work, yet his preoccupation with myth is still seen in a later essay: 'The Natural Order of Miracles', the English version of which appeared in The Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy. Here Unger writes: "A genuine myth handles one unit: religion, science, politics, social every day life and extends and is constrained by the concepts of order and apprehension of natural experience. This is the source of its rational aspect. As distinct from this, the poetic myth is either pure art or, at least, half religion, half art".Unger's views on Judaism are wide ranging. He notes with regret the gradual shrinking of Jewish culture to the 'mere religion' that it is today and suggests that, in order to revitalise Judaism, it must once again inspire and underpin our society. This does not mean that there is such a thing as 'Jewish' science or 'Jewish' technology. But Judaism may have views in other areas, in philosophy, sociology or politics, on topics such as Immortality or a specific Jewish ethical stand in political matters (cf. 'A Restatement of Judaism' in the journal Shofar).------4. Influence of logical access controlSchrder's influence on the early development of the predicate calculus, mainly by popularising C.S. Peirce's work on quantification, is at least as great as that of Frege or Peano. For an example of the influence of Schrder's work on English-speaking logicians of the early 20th century, see Clarence Irving Lewis (1918). The relational concepts that pervade Principia Mathematica are very much owed to the Vorlesungen, cited in Principia's Preface and in Bertrand Russell's Principles of Mathematics.Frege (1960) dismissed Schrder's work, and admiration for Frege's pioneering role has dominated subsequent historical discussion. Contrasting Frege with Schrder and C.S. Peirce, however, Hilary Putnam (1982) writes:When I started to trace the later development of logic, the first thing I did was to look at Schrder's Vorlesungen ber die Algebra der Logik, ...whose third volume is on the logic of relations (Algebra und Logik der Relative, 1895). The three volumes immediately became the best-known advanced logic text, and embody what any mathematician interested in the study of logic should have known, or at least have been acquainted with, in the 1890s.While, to my knowledge, no one except Frege ever published a single paper in Frege's notation, many famous logicians adopted Peirce-Schrder notation, and famous results and systems were published in it. Lwenheim stated and proved the Lwenheim theorem (later reproved and strengthened by Thoralf Skolem, whose name became attached to it together with Lwenheim's) in Peircian notation. In fact, there is no reference in Lwenheim's paper to any logic other than Peirce's. To cite another example, Zermelo presented his axioms for set theory in Peirce-Schrder notation, and not, as one might have expected, in Russell-Whitehead notation.One can sum up these simple facts (which anyone can quickly verify) as follows: Frege certainly discovered the quantifier first (four years before Oscar Howard Mitchell, going by publication dates, which are all we have as far as I know). But Leif Ericson probably discovered America "first" (forgive me for not counting the native Americans, who of course really discovered it "first"). If the effective discoverer, from a European point of view, is Christopher Columbus, that is because he discovered it so that it stayed discovered (by Europeans, that is), so that the discovery became known (by Europeans). Frege did "discover" the quantifier in the sense of having the rightful claim to priority; but Peirce and his students discovered it in the effective sense. The fact is that until Russell appreciated what he had done, Frege was relatively obscure, and it was Peirce who seems to have been known to the entire world logical community. How many of the people who think that "Frege invented logic" are aware of these facts?------5. Work of logical access controlSchrder's early work on formal algebra and logic was written in ignorance of the British logicians George Boole and Augustus De Morgan. Instead, his sources were texts by Ohm, Hankel, Hermann Grassmann, and Robert Grassmann (Peckhaus 1997: 233296). In 1873, Schrder learned of Boole's and De Morgan's work on logic. To their work he subsequently added several important concepts due to Charles Sanders Peirce, including subsumption and quantification.Schrder also made original contributions to algebra, set theory, lattice theory, ordered sets and ordinal numbers. Along with Georg Cantor, he codiscovered the CantorBernsteinSchrder theorem, although Schrder's proof (1898) is flawed. Felix Bernstein (18781956) subsequently corrected the proof as part of his Ph.D. dissertation.Schrder (1877) was a concise exposition of Boole's ideas on algebra and logic, which did much to introduce Boole's work to continental readers. The influence of the Grassmanns, especially Robert's little-known Formenlehre, is clear. Unlike Boole, Schrder fully appreciated duality. John Venn and Christine Ladd-Franklin both warmly cited this short book of Schrder's, and Charles Sanders Peirce used it as a text while teaching at Johns Hopkins University.Schrder's masterwork, his Vorlesungen ber die Algebra der Logik, was published in three volumes between 1890 and 1905, at the author's expense. Vol. 2 is in two parts, the second published posthumously, edited by Eugen Mller. The Vorlesungen was a comprehensive and scholarly survey of "algebraic" (today we would say "symbolic") logic up to the end of the 19th century, one that had a considerable influence on the emergence of mathematical logic in the 20th century. The Vorlesungen is a prolix affair, only a small part of which has been translated into English. That part, along with an extended discussion of the entire Vorlesungen, is in Brady (2000). Also see Grattan-Guinness (2000: 15976).Schrder said his aim was:...to design logic as a calculating discipline, especially to give access to the exact handling of relative concepts, and, from then on, by emancipation from the routine claims of natural language, to withdraw any fertile soil from "clich" in the field of philosophy as well. This should prepare the ground for a scientific universal language that looks more like a sign language than like a sound language.
Common Faults and Solutions When the Control Machine of Parking Lot Management System Spits Cards_ T
Common Faults and Solutions When the Control Machine of Parking Lot Management System Spits Cards_ T
In the past two years, although the card free parking lot system has been widely used in our life, due to the impact of some on-site environment, at present, the parking lot management system through card collection and swiping in and out of the parking lot is still widely used in some communities and other places. Of course, although each set of equipment has undergone a lot of tests when it comes out, but, In the subsequent use process, some problems will inevitably occur, and the card swiping parking lot system is no exception. For all parking lot management systems, we may encounter a common problem, that is, the gate does not lift or does not fall after lifting. Of course, in this case, we can manually remotely control the rise and fall of the gate rod, which will not affect the normal operation of the parking lot for the time being; But if there is a problem with the control machine of the parking lot management system, how can we solve it? The controller of the parking lot management system cannot normally exit the card, which may be caused by the following reasons: 1. At the entrance of the parking lot, the ground sensor cannot sense the vehicle, resulting in the controller unable to eject the card; 2. The inserted card is deformed or the surface is damaged, resulting in blocking at the card outlet when the card is out; 3. When the card in the recycle bin is full, the ground pressure will no longer spit out the card. If the above situations occur, the solutions are as follows: we should ensure that the cards put into the card reader are intact, and regularly check whether the ground feeling at the entrance card reader is normal, whether the cards in the recycling bin are full, etc. There is another situation that we often encounter. At the entrance of the parking lot, the card machine swallows the card, and costs are incurred. The reasons for this situation may be: 1. The card is invalid and the card is recycled; 2. When the card dispenser spits the card to the exit, the ground feeling is released before the card is picked up, resulting in the card being recycled, or the ground feeling is not released, but after the card picking time, the card is automatically recycled, etc. When such a situation occurs, we should regularly check the cards in the recycling warehouse and deal with them in time to prevent relevant expenses. When there are too many cards in the recycling warehouse, they should be handled by the person in charge. All kinds of problems will inevitably occur in the use of any kind of equipment, and so will the parking lot management system. Therefore, we should think of solutions to these problems before they occur, and we can deal with them freely at that time.
Development and Application of Face Recognition Payment Technology_ Taigewang Technology
Development and Application of Face Recognition Payment Technology_ Taigewang Technology
Face recognition payment system is a payment platform based on face recognition system. It was first launched by the Finnish startup uniqul in July 2013. The system does not need a wallet, credit card or mobile phone. When paying, it only needs to face the camera on the POS screen. The system will automatically associate the consumer's facial information with the personal account. The whole transaction process is very convenient. In the same year, the intelligent multimedia technology research center of Chongqing Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences launched the research on this payment method. Zhou Xi, director of the center, introduced that as of August 2014, the center had completed the research on Key Technologies of face recognition payment system. The center's first face data acquisition array in the world can synchronously collect faces from 91 angles, and can achieve the best recognition effect for the most influential states such as changeable illumination, multi angle and occlusion. The face recognition system of intelligent multimedia technology research center has been applied to automatic customs clearance system of border inspection station, dynamic face recognition attendance machine, multi-attribute dynamic face recognition system, etc. On this basis, the center has developed a face recognition mobile payment system, which can pay only by swiping a face card. Face recognition is a biometric technology for identity authentication based on people's facial feature information. The biggest feature of the technology is that it can avoid personal information leakage and recognize in a non-contact way. Face recognition, fingerprint recognition, palmprint recognition, retinal recognition, bone recognition and heartbeat recognition all belong to human biometric recognition technology. They all came into being with the rapid development of photoelectric technology, microcomputer technology, image processing technology and pattern recognition. Identification can be carried out quickly, accurately and healthily; It is non reproducible. Even after cosmetic surgery, the technology can find the original you from hundreds of facial features. Face recognition system has been widely used in the world. In China, it has been widely used in many important industries and fields such as public security, security, customs, finance, military, airports, border ports and security, as well as civil markets such as intelligent access control, door locks, attendance, mobile phones, digital cameras and intelligent toys.
Who Is Leading the Continuous Progress of the Parking System_ Taigewang Technology
Who Is Leading the Continuous Progress of the Parking System_ Taigewang Technology
Parking lot system has been used by people for a long time. As the equipment used to manage the entry and exit of vehicles in the parking lot, it is a must in the parking lot. The current parking lot system has developed from relying solely on manual management to automatic card / ticket collection, Bluetooth remote card reading, license plate recognition and other ways to get in and out, making our parking more convenient. With the development of technology, the function of the parking lot system has developed from the previous only used to manage the entry and exit of vehicles to the current intelligent and unmanned parking lot management systems such as license plate recognition, parking space guidance, reverse car search and self-service payment. This great progress makes the parking lot system play its role to the greatest extent in the parking lot. At present, the application scope of parking lot system is becoming wider and wider. It is not only applied in major parking lots, such as some communities, hospitals, schools, government units and other places. In order to facilitate management, intelligent parking lot management system is also being installed, which can not only facilitate the management of incoming and outgoing vehicles, but also ensure the parking safety of vehicles. Nowadays, Internet technology is becoming more and more popular. In order to manage multiple parking lots more conveniently, networking will also be implemented, that is, what people call cloud parking lots. The most remarkable feature of cloud parking lots is that it can uniformly manage multiple parking lots not in the same area. It can query the data reports of each parking lot in real time, avoiding the problem of secondary report consolidation, At the same time, the monitoring screen of each parking lot can be monitored in real time to avoid the phenomenon of illegal opening. Now some logistics parks, residential properties and other large places in many places have begun to build cloud platforms for the convenience of management, saving a lot of human, material and financial resources.
The Prospect of License Plate Recognition System, an Indispensable Parking System in Intelligent Tra
The Prospect of License Plate Recognition System, an Indispensable Parking System in Intelligent Tra
With the rapid development of urbanization in China, the traffic pressure is becoming more and more severe. Intelligent traffic management has become the general direction of traffic development. In the automotive field, the parking market segment has always been regarded as a trillion cake, especially in the first tier cities. Parking is basically just needed like housing. In view of the pain points of the parking industry, the state has put forward a proposal to speed up the construction of intelligent transportation to better guide citizens to travel; Various parking lot system manufacturers have put forward various solutions conducive to parking lot management; For example, license plate recognition system, parking space guidance system, reverse vehicle search system, cloud parking and other parking schemes and measures. As the basic equipment of the entrance and exit of the parking lot system, the license plate recognition system is the basis for the realization of other systems. At the same time, the license plate number is the only mark for vehicle identification. Only rapid and accurate recognition of the license plate is the premise for the realization of other parking lot management. License plate recognition technology has been applied in the security industry for a long time, and the technology is relatively mature. The application of artificial intelligence improves the accuracy of license plate recognition. In recent years, license plate recognition system is also widely used in expressway, so as to realize the non-stop traffic of vehicles. How to select a set of high-quality license plate recognition system has become the primary task to solve the problem of parking lot management. Considering the quality of a set of license plate recognition system, there are three indicators, namely recognition rate, recognition speed and background management system. Of course, the prerequisite to ensure these is that the system can operate stably and reliably. After years of development, license plate recognition system has become a more mature technology, and is used more and more in parking lots. More convenient parking methods create a good parking environment for people. At the same time, license plate recognition technology will gradually develop to high-definition, integration and intelligence, and continue to play an important role in various application systems.
With the Arrival of Intelligent Parking Lot, See Taigewang Technology to Create the Most Humanized P
With the Arrival of Intelligent Parking Lot, See Taigewang Technology to Create the Most Humanized P
Intelligent transportation is a new industry in the field of security. With the increase of vehicles, intelligent parking lots are also in full swing. Taking intelligent transportation as the key deployment field, the parking lot system is also developing towards a more intelligent, safer and more convenient direction, so as to promote the construction of intelligent cities in China. Speaking of parking lots, advanced management technologies such as card management, license plate recognition and remote card reading related to entrance and exit control are used to improve the efficiency of entrance and exit of parking lots and bring more parking options to car owners. In order to bring more convenient parking to car owners, many parking lot system manufacturers are actively exploring new management modes, To develop in a more comprehensive and reasonable direction. With the rapid development of various technologies and the rapid change of products, forward-looking research and development is very important for parking lot system manufacturers. If the products can not fully meet the needs of the market, taigewang technology has always focused on the research and development of parking lot system and is committed to building the most intelligent parking lot system products. Taigewang technology is the founder of the all-in-one card cloud platform. Through the construction of parking cloud platform and property cloud platform, it controls the service entrance and creates a new mode of intelligent management for users. At present, taigewang parking lot system is gradually upgraded according to the changes of users' needs. It creates an integrated parking mode for users through a variety of intelligent functions such as license plate recognition, parking space guidance, reverse car search and self-service payment. In order to ensure the parking safety of owners' vehicles, people can also lock their vehicles through wechat. As a leading domestic manufacturer and solution provider of high-end intelligent all-in-one card products based on cloud computing service platform, taigewang parking lot system will always be at the forefront of intelligent technology, actively explore some science and technology, and create a high-tech and more intelligent parking lot system.
License Plate Recognition System Has Obvious Advantages in Parking Lot_ Taigewang Technology
License Plate Recognition System Has Obvious Advantages in Parking Lot_ Taigewang Technology
Now many parking lots have successively adopted the license plate recognition system, abandoning the traditional single card swiping mode, and the users who apply the license plate recognition system respond well. Market demand is driving people's parking mode towards a new era. This new management mode has been adopted in many fields such as business center, residential area, government organs and public transportation. With the breakthrough of parking lot management system technology, license plate recognition system will gradually go deep into people's life. Compared with the traditional parking lot system, the license plate recognition system has many advantages: firstly, the license plate recognition system can allow vehicles to pass quickly and automatically without parking and swiping cards. When the traffic flow is large and the vehicles are frequent and dense, all vehicles can enter the site quickly to avoid the phenomenon of vehicle queuing, and all vehicles can enter the site without stopping. Secondly, there are diversified charging modes. According to the management of the park, not only can the central fees, the discount of magnetic cards, the payment of the users of the storage be paid, and so on, but also the mobile phone end payment can be used, such as the popular WeChat payment and Alipay payment. License plate recognition system has many functions, such as license plate recognition, information release, voice broadcast, mobile payment, traffic flow statistics, vehicle capture, vehicle type recognition, advertising and so on. When the vehicle enters the site, the license plate recognition system automatically captures the vehicle photos, identifies its license plate number, records the date and time of vehicle entry, vehicle number plate and vehicle photos, and then makes judgment and analysis according to these information, prompts the owner's parking space and the use of the current parking space, and lifts the pole for release. When leaving the site, take another picture of the vehicle, identify its license plate number, automatically find the entry record, vehicle type and access comparison of the vehicle, and then judge whether it is a resident or temporary parking customer of the parking lot according to the data. If so, it is released according to the setting requirements of the property management personnel, otherwise it is released according to the vehicle type (taxi, delivery vehicle, official vehicle, etc.) Determine the receivable temporary parking fee and then release it. It greatly improves the work efficiency of property management personnel and effectively solves the safety problem of parking lot.
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Shenzhen TGW Technology Co.,Ltd is the leading access control solution provider for vehicle intelligent parking system, license plate recognition recognition system and pedestrian access control turnstile and face recognition terminals.
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